The Radio Spectrum - UK Allocations

last meddled with : 21.jun.2000


A guide from 1 Hz to 30 EHz (DC to Gamma rays). The main bands, all frequencies in MHz unless otherwise stated. With grateful thanks to the UK Radiocomms Agency for so openly publishling all you need to know... even if actually tuning in to anything other than Broadcasting/CB/Ham is not allowed, that's the rules, folks. Which is why there are no details of Private systems here... this page details frequency ranges and channel schemes that could be used for various services, but not actual, specific instances.

established in 1997

Best viewed in 1024-x-768, on a beach, with scantily-clad...

DISCLAIMER: This page is provided for interest/curiosity only. Private services should remain that way, if you listen without a licence (you can't get them) to anything other than licenced Broadcasting or Amateur Radio (& CB) you are breaking the law. Even having a private frequency stored in a receiver's memory channel is considered to be proof of intercepting messages that are not intended for you. Penalties include heavy fines and/or imprisonment.
You have been warned.

Under Section 5(b) of the Wireless Telegraphy Act 1949 it is an offence to use radio equipment with intent to obtain information as to the contents, sender or addressee of any messages, whether or not the information is passed on, which the user has not been authorised to receive.

Eavesdropping is tempting because wide-area mobile comms are obviously designed to cover a large area and so it really is quite easy to receive at least base stations and repeaters. If you say they deserve to be heard if they don't encrypt their voice traffic in any way - I would say you need to consider the harsh economic reality of replacing huge numbers of radios, but it will happen. You may think that the USA has things right, as they may listen to their public services (but not cellphones) but you can't argue with our law unless you can get it changed, and unprocessed bacon might fly. There may well be a large number of cases of the US public assisting their law officers after having heard about incidents on their scanners, but I don't think that justifies the personal details of victims of crime being known. If anything, maybe there should be a clear channel in each area that the public MAY listen to, where the police actually ask the public for their assistance. Could be tricky from a legal liability angle though! Please don't tell me you think you have a right to listen to the movements of covert investigations...

THIS PAGE WAS COPIED FROM 'www.wibble.co.uk/links/ukspectrum/spectrum.html' AS SUGGESTED BY THE AUTHOR AS THIS PAGE MAY NOT BE AVAILABLE ON THAT SITE IN THE FUTURE


HINT: There is a glossary at the end of this page to explain all the funny acronyms!
So what's the point of this page? Personally, I've been fascinated by the magic of radio all of my life, fiddling around with radios since primary school, and over the years having read a fair bit about communication systems and the radio spectrum, I've now got a lot of radio information rattling around in my head. I thought it would be nice to share it with the world, via the web, to show what a crowded resource the RF spectrum is; how every nook and cranny is allocated to some service or other; how the RA has to balance the needs of various services when they are asked for more spectrum. Also, with all that RF energy passing through your body, don't you think you have a right to know exactly what sort of emissions are zapping through you? (I'm not saying you have a right to know the content of the messages, only the nature of the delivery). Also, Amateurs should be aware of the services that could be affected should their equipment not be up to the required standard. Likewise to anyone foolish enough to consider operating an unlicenced pirate station - just don't - there really isn't any point is there? And lastly, because published books are often out of date or plainly wrong in these matters.

So if you've ever wondered what's beyond the dial on your ordinary radio, this is the page for you. Just be aware that you shouldn't tune in to anything private - if someone is talking loudly in the street and you can easily overhear, you still don't morally have the right to listen do you? If the vast amount of broadcasts and ham radio conversations aren't enough to amuse you (and the rest of what life in general has to offer) then that's quite sad. If I ever have time to switch on my receiver (to see what the propagation's like) the only bands I need to go to are amateur ones. And good music is much more satisfying. If you can find it.

In a decade or so there may not be all that much else to listen to anyway on current scanners, with FM broadcasters moving to DAB, analogue TV making way to digital, PMR and emergency services changing to TETRA, and both Marine and Aero traffic increasingly using digital modes and satellites for routine traffic, cellphones all digital. Maybe the spectrum will one day consist of just one system for mobile access to THE NET which provides for all possible communication needs - a load of buzzing noises wherever you tune, except for the long-established amateur bands. Then you scanner owners can relax, you won't be able to do anything illegal with them if you try - unless you decide to throw them through someone's window!

So before long a scanner will be virtually useless except for listening to the hams. Those who are only into the naughty stuff will find another hobby and those who are geniunely interested in radio will have no choice but to go down the amateur route.

I would say that if you have an interest in these matters, devote your energies now to Amateur Radio PLEASE! We need more activity in the bands. Amateur radio covers bands from Low Frequencies (with 2km wavelengths) to ultra-high micro-wave bands (wavelengths in millimeters) with modes ranging from good old-fashioned morse code (CW) to AM/FM speech (communications bandwidths) to advanced narrowband speech (Single Side Band) to Television (slow scan like FAX through to full motion/definition FMW broadcast quality) to digital/data modes like RTTY and Packet. Transmissions can be direct, fixed and mobile (and Maritime Mobile), via satellite, bent through the troposphere, bounced off various layers of charged particles in the upper atmosphere, or even bounced off the moon (EME), or shooting stars (MS)! And all for just 15 quid per year - bargain. Go on - prove you know what you're talking about - take the RAE examination soon. Even if you don't ever use it...     See the RA web-page info, or the Radio Society for Good Buddies site for more details, or the UK Ham Radio FAQ. And the G7KPF Quick Links. Join and support the RSGB too, it's a good idea as they do tend to negotiate new bands for us.

Here then, is my quick tour of the spectrum of 2000, with links to other sites where appropriate.
All information sourced from freely published books, magazines and web-sites (RA,ERO), without the need for a scanner, as part of an ongoing quest to figure out what lies beyond the broadcasting bands...

Bands (MHz)


Services

Broadcasting - LW,MW,SW, 87.5-108, DAB, TV, you're invited to listen.

Amateur & CB - HF, 50, 70, 144, 430 MHz etc. Can be good, can be dull - you decide. You may listen.

Aeronautical - "airband" - HF, 108-137 MHz. You may not listen, but it seems to be tolerated.

Maritime - HF, 156-163 MHz. Probably tolerated, but no listening unless licensed, and on-board.

...thou shalt NOT listen...

Low Power / Short Range Devices - Cordless telephones / headphones / microphones, remote control etc.

SAB/SAP - when TV/radio/film/programme makers use radio (managed by JFMG):
a) Radiomicrophones - carrying "programme audio" obviously,
b) Talkback - on-site comms (simplex or continous duplex) or wide-area comms back to base,
c) Links - mobile "programme audio" back to base, or Fixed links between sites.
Like the military and many low-power devices, they seem to crop up all over the spectrum! However, some of the allocations in shared bands (mainly BBC) are to cease in 2000, leaving mostly primary bands.
As Bands I, III, IV and V are designated BROADCASTING it seems logical that broadcasters may also use these bands for mics and comms either at UHF on locally unused channels, or (also for links) in the VHF bands that are no longer used for broadcasting.
Around 174MHz is very popular for mics, as well as other parts of Band III that coincide with French TV carriers and so are not used for PBR.

PMR - channels are allocated in all bands to different categories such as :
. National exclusive,
. Wide Area Shared "G3" - taxis "T1", despatch "H4" etc. - 30kms range,
. ...& Medical (ambulance service - high band)
. CBS (follow the link for Common Base channels),
. On-site shared - dual "C2" or single "O5" - 3km range max., why not use PMR446?!
. S.T.Hire, demo/"parking"/Test&Dev,
. specific uses i.e. Road Construction
. UK General "U3" - mobile only, anywhere in UK, 5W ERP max, for not more than 12 months in one place.
Which explains why that "spare channel" can't be used for anything else in your area!
Given that the number of users of PMR channels runs into tens of thousands (1999 report, and 1997 report) , it would be quite futile to attempt to list them all - it amazes me that publications even try.
Even worse, once a frequency/user tie-up makes it into print, no-one ever seems to doubt it's validity and it's often printed way after it ceased to be used!
Fair enough to list national allocations, the general type of use for a channel - but to try and find EVERY user, EVERY taxi firm.... ho hum.

Military - various web pages will show that there is a world market for equipment operating in the bands such as HF, 30-87.5 (25kHz FM), 116-155 & 225-400 (25kHz AM), 470-512 etc. Note that whilst the odd Combat Net here and there may be "in the clear" any serious tactical use would be very hard to find. Frequency hopping and scrambling are used - after all, would you want your country defended by forces that could be easily monitored?
Operational use (like PMR) for base security, training, Mil. Police, MOULD etc. involves fixed frequencies, and various books show that Low VHF, Low Band, Mid Band, 406.1-420 and UHF1 are heavily used for these purposes. There is currently a general move from VHF to UHF, and the use of a TETRA system is being considered. This type of radio traffic is still not to be listened to!

...thou shalt definitely NOT listen...

Public Telecomms - paging, mobile telephone/data - the reason why scanner manufacturers HAD to include coverage of the 900MHz band (! there's nowt else up there to listen to). Eavesdropping on analogue mobile calls is quite rightly frowned upon.

Home Office for the Emergency Services - previous versions of this document did not mention these allocations, but as the bands are shown on RA pages, and in various books, some are now included for the sake of clarity. Only the BANDS are shown, not actual frequencies in use. Do NOT listen in!


Notes

NOTE 1: Boundaries - a "equals" symbol (=) is used here to clarify a known boundary between two band sections, this usually means no transmissions on the frequency itself, but that use of the band includes RF emissions up to that point. This could be a point between two normal channels, such as the 165.04375 boundary between the last mid-band channel 165.0375 and the first high band channel 165.050, or even a "wasted" channel giving "guard band" separation between two types of service.
As an example, Band II is bounded by 87.5 to 108, whereas I try wherever possible to specify bands by the first and last channel centres, in this case 87.6 to 107.9 (in the USA, VOR tests are allowed on 108.0 just to confuse matters, so long as no interference is caused). (Some aero DME channels are tuned by selecting 108.0 even though there's no signal on 108!)
One exception is the international marine 156.0 boundary - used for channel 0 uniquely in the UK, which isn't at odds with the 154-156 use below I guess!
The RA usually specify bands as boundaries - hence I try here to show actual usage.

NOTE 2: Dots after a frequency signifies the start of a range, whereas a single spot frequency has no trailing dots - although this doesn't apply in the two-column section. Frequencies given relate to the center of the transmission (COFDM, FM, AM) (i.e. the unmodulated carrier with carrier-based systems such as FM/AM), or the absent carrier for SSB.

NOTE 3: Scanner folk often use the terms Simplex and Duplex wrongly to describe Single and Dual frequency systems. The term Simplex means taking turns to transmit, whether on one or more frequencies. The proper terms to use are S.F.S. (Single Frequency Simplex) and D.F.S (Dual..). Duplex only applies on telephone style systems where one party can interupt the other. Even TT (Talk-Through; repeaters) is still simplex. I use the abbrev.s Single and Dual. Any time I specify "Split" generally implies D.F.S., and details are given as base freq.s, with the change in frequency in +/- MHz needed to hear the mobile.
Even "Duplex" doesn't neccessarily mean two frequencies, new digital systems can rapidly take turns on the same freq. by time-compressing the audio data-stream!
ASSUMING you have permission to listen...
S.F.S. and TT (repeaters) are obviously very easy to monitor with just one memory (or in manual mode) and "scan delay" isn't a problem - the longer the delay the better, as many radio users seem to need a few seconds to think of a reply (TT "over" pips are generally a waste of time, most dimwits wait for the squelch crunch). This means conventional scanners are fine for monitoring amateur, CB, airband, ship-shore-ship, some PMR etc.
Private D.F.S is more tricky, depending on whether the base transmits pips to let other mobiles know the channel is busy. True D.F.S. with no "busy signal" just requires two scan memories and no scan-delay, which not all scanners allow. With "busy-pips" you'll need to be just a little smarter to catch all the action, should you have permission. Dare I suggest investing in a cheap-n-cheerful second receiver to take care of just the strong base freq.s while using the better set/antenna for the mobile side...
These difficulties could be quite easily overcome if the manufacturers thought just a teensy bit harder about the operation of their receivers. By the time they DO get such advances implemented, everything will be digital anyway!

Abbrev.s are no longer explained as we go, there's a new glossary at the end.



Electromagnetic spectrum...

MHz

             lower than 1Hz? Slowly-changing DC more like.

             The planet Earth itself hums accoustically (apparently) with
             around 50 persistent notes between 2 and 7 milliHertz. 
             We are talking of cycle lengths of several minutes here.

--0.000001--(1Hz, 1 per sec.)---
             
  Hz         Brainwaves... (Electrical activity in your thinking-gear)
   0.1...    Delta - Sleep
   3...      Theta - Sluggish, day-dreaming
   7...      Alpha - Relaxed and receptive
  13...      Beta  - Very alert
  30...      High Beta - Paranormal powers!



--0.00002=--(20Hz)--------------
             Audible if converted to soundwaves (like with, er, speakers)

             ELF,ILF,VLF Atmo-"sferics", "chorus", "tweeks" (1.5-5kHz), "whistlers" - natural phenomena
             mainly from lightening pulses trapped in "waveguides" between ion. layers


  0.000050     UK mains AC electricity (50Hz, 240V) - 6000 km wavelength

  0.000067...  CTCSS (Tone squelch) tones
               67 69.3 71.9 74.4 77 79.7 82.5 85.4 88.5 91.5 94.8 97.4 100 103.5 107.2 110.9 
               114.8 118.8 123 127.3 131.8 136.5 141.3 146.2 151.4 156.7 162.2 167.9 173.8
               179.9 186.2 192.8 203.5 206.5 210.7 218.1 225.7 229.1 233.6 241.8 250.3 254.1Hz
               (150 Hz is a military standard)


  --sound---------   known as:           Headphones
      0 -    32 Hz   Extreme bass
     20 -    40 Hz   Low bass, bottom octave
     40 -    80 Hz   Mid bass
     80 -   160 Hz   Upper bass
    160 -   320 Hz   Lower midrange
   0.32 -  2.56 kHz  Midrange
   2.56 -  5.12 kKz  Upper midrange
   5.12 - 10.24 kHz  Highs
  10.24 - 20 kHz     Extreme highs, top octave



  ---music---
  0.000016,35  C-1 nice and bass-y (16Hz)
  0.000261,63  C3  note "middle C"  (see Piano Tuning)
       277.18  C# (these in Hz)
       293.66  D
       311.13  D#    To double a frequency in 12 equal steps (semi-tones) to complete
       329.63  E     one octave, multiply a note by 2 to the power of 1/12th to obtain
       349.23  F     the next note.    440 (A) x 1.059463094 = 466.16 (A#)
       369.99  F#
       392.0   G
       415.3   G#
       440.0   A   used for main reference
       466.16  A#
       493.88  B
  0.000523,25  C4  the note C again. Only an octave higher. (x2, yeah?)
      4186.00  C7  a really annoying 4kHz note C
      7902.13  B7
  0.012543,85  G8  highest midi note

  0.002700..   above 2.7 kHz not neccessary for comms speech, phones etc, and so for 
               phones it's filtered out. Hence too the 3kHz channel spacings on HF.
  0.015...     FM broadcast audio is filtered out above 15kHz
  0.019        FM stereo "pilot tone"
  0.020        approx. limit of human hearing. Bats, on the other hand...



--0.003=-----(3kHz)-------------
          VLF,LF: Mobile, Fixed, Navigation, DGPS, Time Signals (20,25,50,60,66.6,75kHz)
          Enormous wavelengths are very useful for penetrating rock (cave to surface - molephones) and
          the oceans (for submarines) but the antennas need to be rather large, or magnetic loops.
 
  0.009   UK Thunderstorm detection system, airborne and ground based
  0.0102  Omega hyperbolic fix Nav. (& 11.05 & 11.33 & 13.6 kHz)  ** ceased sep.97 **
  0.016   a BT service
  0.060   MSF British Time signal 
  0.070...Decca Nav. purple slaves, to 72kHz   (5f) Llancarfan
  0.073   Ham 4km band ( 71.6= - 74.4= kHz)    ** UK only, until 30.jun.2001 **
  0.084=..Decca Nav. masters, to 86= kHz       (6f) Bolberry Down (f=14.046666.)
  0.100   NELS Loran-C Navigation. 4MW pulsed.  Loophead,Lessay,Sylt,Soustons (90 - 110)
  0.112...Decca Nav. red slaves, to 117.6kHz   (8f) Jersey
  0.126...Decca Nav. green slaves, to 129kHz   (9f) St.Marys
  0.13347 Mobile data service (& 146.705 kHz)
  0.13675 Ham 2km band (135.7= - 137.8= kHz)   ** new Euro band, 1998 **

          Decca involved a non-radiated fundamental freq around 14kHz, and a "chain" used
          freq.s that were 5,6,8 and 9 times that of the fundamental.   Ended 31.mar.2000




--0.1485=-----------------------          
  0.153.. LW AM Broadcasting, to 0.279 - 9kHz channels (ITU Region1) + some Nav. (NDB)
          See the British DX Club's Lists.

    153   Germany, Romania, Algeria
    162   France (FSK data), Turkey  
    171   Russia, Morocco, possible future Dutch "Delta 171"
    177   Germany
    183   Germany
    189   Italy
    198   UK BBC Radio 4  (FSK data) Droitwich, Burghead & Westerglen 
          used to be 200kHz... ex BBC Radio 2 (1500 meters)  ex Home Service (!)
    207   Germany, Morocco
    216   France,  Norway
    225   Poland,  spare UK INR allocation
    234   Luxembourg, Russia
    243   Denmark
    252   EIRE Atlantic 252, Algeria
    261   Moscow
    270   Czech
    279   Belarus, and soon: MusicMann 279 (Isle of Man)




--0.2835=----------------------- 
          Marine/Aero Navigation (NDB beacons) + Maritime Mobile (CW)

  0.500   Calling, Distress (CW)
  0.518   Navtex, (& 490 & 4209.5 kHz)



--0.5265=-MF--------------------
  0.531.. MW AM Broadcasting, to 1.602 - 9 kHz channels (to 1.700 in USA, 10kHz ch)
          See the British DX Club's Lists.

          Channels internationally allocated to countries with maximum power levels specified.
          Hence the terms "national clear channel" etc. A country's channel will thus be used
          for either national networks or for lower powered local stations. If the international
          plan exists anywhere on the web, do let us know!

 --kHz--  UK band plan:
   558    ILR Spectrum (London),    ex Pirates e.g. Laser 558
   585    BBC regional (Scotland)
   603    local (BBC/ILR)
   630    BBC local (2)
   648    National BBC World Service
   657    BBC local (2)
   666    local (BBC/ILR)
   693    National BBC R5 from 27.8.90 (was BBC R2)
   720    some BBC R4
   729    BBC local (1)
   738    BBC local (low power)
   756    local (BBC mainly)
   765    BBC local (1)
   774    local (mainly BBC - some R4)
   792    local (BBC/ILR) (2)
   801    BBC local (1)
   810    BBC regional (Scotland)
   819    local (BBC/ILR)
   828    local (BBC/ILR)
   837    BBC local
   855    local (BBC/ILR)
   873    BBC local
   882    BBC regional (Wales)
   909    National BBC 5 from 27.8.90 (Was BBC R2)
   936    ILR (2)
   945    ILR (2), University inductive loops
   954    ILR (2)
   963    ILR (2), University inductive loops
   990    local (BBC/ILR)
   999    local (BBC/ILR) + University/Hospital Radio loops
  1017    ILR
  1026    local (BBC/ILR)
  1035    local (BBC/ILR)
  1053    INR3 Talk Radio UK  (ex BBC R1)
  1089    INR3 Talk Radio UK  (ex BBC R1)
  1107    ILR + INR3 Talk Radio 
  1116    local (BBC/ILR)
  1125    BBC regional (Wales)
  1152    ILR
  1161    local (BBC/ILR)
  1170    ILR
  1197    fill-in INR2 Virgin
  1215    INR2 Virgin (once "Virgin 1215")
  1233    fill-in INR2 Virgin
  1242    local (ILR/INR2 Virgin)
  1251    ILR (1)
  1260    local (BBC/ILR/INR2 Virgin)
  1269    RSL Brands Hatch
  1278    ILR + RSL
  1287    RSL
  1296    National BBC World Service
  1305    ILR
  1323    local (BBC/ILR) + ex RSL
  1332    local (BBC/ILR)
  1341    BBC regional (Ulster)
  1350    RSL (Hospital RSL)
  1359    local (BBC/ILR)
  1368    local (BBC/ILR)
  1377    ILR (1)
  1386    RSL
  1404    RSL
  1413    local (BBC/ILR/RSL)
  1431    ILR
  1440       ex The Great 208 - Radio Luxembourg
  1449    BBC local (some BBC R4)
  1458    local BBC/ILR)
  1476    ILR
  1485    local (BBC/BBC R4/ILR)
  1494    RSL Tooting
  1503    local (BBC/RSL)
  1521    local (BBC/ILR)
  1530    local (BBC/ILR)
  1548    local (BBC/ILR)
  1557    local (BBC/ILR)
  1566    RSL
  1575    RSL
  1584    local (BBC/ILR)
  1602    RSL

  1611    used elsewhere, but out-of-band




--1.6065=------------------------
          MF "Fixed & Mobile" -  Maritime / Land / Aero(OR)

  1.642...Cordless phones (CT0 base), to 1782 (8x 20kHz FM), 
          handsets duplex at 47.456-47.543 MHz (12.5kHz spacing, 6.25 offsets)
          Channel 7 (1762) may use 47.531 or 47.444
          To be phased out. No new equipment after apr.2005

          Amateur Radio 160m "Top Band" (1.81-2.0) shared (SSB used is mainly LSB below 10MHz)

          1.6 to 4MHz mostly known for maritime use ("fishphones", trawler chat etc)

  2.182   Calling, Distress



--2.85=---HF--------------------    the "real shortwave bands"!
          mobile, fixed, military, ISM, SRD, and...            "numbers stations"/more
 
       o  AM Broadcasting
          Tropical bands around 2.4 MHz (120 meters), 3.3 MHz (90 meters) and 5 MHz (60 meters)
          kHz Bands (as used by the BBC) :
           3950= -  4000= 75 meters
           5900= -  6200= 49 meters  +5875    popular band for pirate radio
           7100= -  7350= 41 meters
           9400= -  9900= 31 meters  +9915
          11600= - 12050= 25 meters +12095
          13570= - 13870= 22 meters
          15100= - 15800= 19 meters +15070
          17480= - 17900= 16 meters
        ( 18900= - 19020  15 meters  SSB broadcasting after 2007 )
          21450= - 21850= 13 meters
          25600= - 26100= 11 meters
          Band boundaries are often ignored by broadcasters trying to get a clear channel

       o  Amateur Radio
          160m  ( 1.81- 2.0)    shared  (SSB mainly LSB)
          80m   ( 3.5 - 3.8)    shared  (SSB mainly LSB)
          40m   ( 7.0 - 7.1)    primary (SSB mainly LSB)
          30m   (10.1 - 10.15)  shared  (SSB not recommended) (WARC)
          20m   (14.0 - 14.35)  primary
          16.5m (18.068-18.168) primary (WARC)
          15m   (21.0 - 21.45)  primary
          12m   (24.89- 24.99)  primary (WARC)
          10m   (28.0 - 29.7)   primary
          Note: the original bands were harmonically related 1.8, 3.6, 7, 14, 21, 28 (ex 56 band!) etc

       o  Standard Frequency references, and Time signals
          at 2.5, 5.0 (Rugby), 10.0 (Rugby), 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 etc.

       o  Maritime     more  more 
          Bands :
           4063= -  4438= kHz
           6200= -  6525=
           8195= -  8815=
          12230= - 13200=
          16360= - 17410=
          18780= - 18900=
          19680= - 19800=
          22000= - 22855=
          25070= - 25210=
          26100= - 26175=
          Note the "even MHz" 2,4,6,8,12,16,18 etc (& 0.5 is a quarter of 2!)
               whereas Aero has the "odd MHz" 3,5,9,11,13,15 etc.

          SSB  (3kHz SSB channels) :
    kHz
   2046+ 2049  intership
   2053+ 2056  intership
   2241        British intership
   2246        British intership
   2301        British intership
   4146+ 4149  intership  4B & 4C  (4125=4A)
   4357- 4435  shore chs  401- 427 ( -292kHz split:  4065- 4143)    4417/ 4125 calling
   6224- 6230  intership  6A,6B,6C
   6501- 6522  shore chs  601- 608 ( -301kHz split:  6200- 6221)    6516/ 6215 calling
   8291        ch  833    GMDSS
   8294+ 8297  intership  8A & 8B
   8364        SAR
   8707- 8716  chs 834-837
   8719- 8812  shore chs  801- 832 ( -524kHz split:  8195- 8288)    8779/ 8255 calling
  12353-12365  intership
  13077-13197  shore chs 1201-1241 ( -847kHz split: 12230-12350)   13137/12290 calling
  16528-16546  intership
  17242-17407  shore chs 1601-1656 ( -882kHz split: 16360-16525)   17302/16420 calling
  18825-18843  intership
  19755-19797  shore chs 1801-1815 ( -975kHz split: 18780-18822)   19770/18795 calling
  22159-22177  intership
  22696-22852  shore chs 2201-2253 ( -696kHz split: 22000-22156)   22756/22060 calling
  25100-25118  intership
  26145-26172  shore chs 2501-2510 (-1075kHz split: 25070-25097)   26172/25097 calling

        12359 Herb VAX498 (nr Toronto) 20:00 - 22:00 UTC



       o  Aeronautical R or ER (En-Route on fixed airways; so mainly civil)  (3kHz SSB channels)   more
    kHz
   2851- 3019   NATS: 2872, 2899, 2971, 3016  (Ireland)
   3401- 3497   NATS: 3413 (VolMet), 3476      BT: 3482
   4651- 4696   NATS: 4675
   5481- 5676   NATS: 5505 (VolMet), 5598, 5616, 5649   BT: 5610, 5670 (Rugby)   Speedwing: 5535 (Cove)
   6526- 6682   NATS: 6622    BT: 6634  +EC!
   8816- 8960   NATS: 8831, 8864, 8879, 8891, 8906, 8957 (VolMet)  BT: 8960
  10006-10096
  11276-11396   NATS: 11279, 11336  BT: 11306
  13261-13357   NATS: 13264 (VolMet), 13291, 13306
  17901-17967   NATS: 17946
  21925-21997



       o  Aeronautical OR (Off-Route; so mainly military)  (3kHz SSB channels)      GHFS
          Watch for "Airfield colour states" every hour at the same minutes past the hour.
          Volmet weather info broadcasts are easy to find...
    kHz
   3023 - 3152   3023 SAR (night)   and up to 3230= ?
   3800 - 3950
   4700= -4995=  +CCF
   5450= -5480=       5450 RAF VolMet
   5680          GMDSS SAR (day)
   5684 - 5726   5711
   6685 - 6763   6739
   8965 - 9037   9031  "On-the-hour" and H+30 "Architect"
  11175 -11271   11175 is the "triple 1" calling channel      11253 RAF VolMet
  13200 -13257
  15010 -15097
  17970 -18027
  21870=-21924=  Fixed
  23200=-23350=



       o  In the remaining parts of HF, you'd be forgiven for thinking anything goes  :o)
          I presume "fixed" on its own means mobile so long as one station is fixed!
    kHz
   3155= -3400=  Fixed + Land & Sea Mobile
   4000= -4063=  Fixed + Sea Mobile
   4438= -4650=  Fixed + all Mobile         +CCF
   5005= -5450=  Fixed + Land & Sea Mobile  +CCF
   5730= -5950=  Fixed + Land & Sea Mobile
   6765= -7000=  Fixed + Land Mobile
   7300= -8100=  Fixed + Land Mobile
   8100= -8195=  Fixed + Maritime Mobile
   9040= -9500=  Fixed
   9900= -9995=  Fixed
  10150=-11175=  Fixed + Land & Sea Mobile
  11400=-11700=  Fixed
  12050=-12230=  Fixed
  13360=-13600=  Fixed + all Mobile
  13800=-14000=  Fixed + all Mobile + EC!
  14350=-14990=  Fixed + all Mobile
  15600=-16360=  Fixed
  17410=-17550=  Fixed
  18030=-18068=  Fixed
  18168=-18780=  Fixed + Land & Sea Mobile
  18900=-19680=  Fixed  (18.9 to 19.02 broadcasting after 2007)
  19800=-19990=  Fixed
  20010=-21000=  Fixed + all Mobile
  21750=-21870=  Fixed
  22855=-23000=  Fixed
  23000=-23200=  Fixed + all Mobile
  23350=-24890=  Fixed + Land Mobile
  25010=-25070=  Fixed + Land Mobile
  25210=-25550=  Fixed + Land & Sea Mobile
  25550=-25600=  Radio Astronomy



       o  Cadets - CCF etc.

                 CCF (Combined Cadet Force)
          2274
          4029
   4923 - 4995   4973 calling
   4458 - 4498   4478
   5300 - 5346   5328
          6913
          7751   data

                 Sea Cadets (Sunday mornings)
          6992   RL25  and RL22 6806

                 RAF Cadets (Sunday 10-13 hrs, Tues & Fri 1930)
          3236   B3
          3615   A7,B7  3678 A6     3715 B6  3752 C6
          4610   A1     4782 B2     4925 B1
          5245   C1     5770 A2,C2  5792 C4
          7450   A5     7740 A4,B4



       o  Unlicensed pirate pseudo-hams.
          "Echo Charlie" band at 6.6MHz (please let me know what EC means!) has been around for decades.
          They argue that little real harm is done on the unused civil aero channels, but a lot of
          channels ARE used, especially between 6600 and 6635. Of the hundreds of stations active,
          some do venture down as far as 6530 but "most don't really go below 6635" has been heard.
          International flight control may be affected. There may be a dozen or more QSOs at any time!
    kHz (approx)
   3430 - 3500   86 or 85m, LSB/USB    calling  3475 LSB  much aero use... SAR on 3488 etc.
   6530 - 6700   45 meters, LSB/USB    calling  6670 LSB  Italy 6660  Sweden 6685  military above 6682!
  13900 -14000   21 meters, USB/LSB    calling 13970 USB  much data use, but not all the time
  18010 -18050   16 meters, USB/LSB    calling 18030 USB  stay above 18030, it's military aero below!
  20900 -20980   14 meters, USB/LSB    calling 20930 USB  I'd stay below 20960, if I were you.

          I hesitate to include the following because the whole approach is subtly different...
  26185 -28000   11 meters, USB/LSB    calling 27555 USB  CB "Freeband"

          Stereotypes:
            CB           : fairly brainless, nice but dim etc
            ham          : knowledgeable nerds, very dull
            PMR446       : the outdoor type, and hubby-to-wife links
            freebanders  : CBers playing at DX
            Echo Charlie : The true spirit of radio friendship, enjoying beating the system
            



--26.175=-------------------------
          Fixed & Mobile (not aero)

          26 (25?!!) to 28 MHz littered with freeband unofficial CB channels. (+Callsigns)   more
          Very nicely operated SSB DX, putting Amateur radio to shame!

          26.185..CB freeband Lo-Lo channels 11-40, to 26.505 (mid band - 2 x 450kHz)  26285 calling
          26.330..New Zealand CB 1-40, to 26.770 (mid band -635kHz)    calling 26.5 (ch 15)

  26.225=.Paging, to 26.9325=  25kHz     STH Paging 26.835 & 26.92
  26.25   JFMG talkback (simp) 12.5kHz 20W, and 26.35, 26.45

           26.515..CB freeband Lo channels 1-40, to 26.955 (mid band - 1 x 450kHz)
           26.565..German CB ch.s 41-80, to 26.955 (straight 10kHz sequence)

  26.87 ..future SSB CB, to 26.96 (provisional plans)
          "The UK indicted their willingness to participate in this work, although they indicated 
          that they would be opposed to introducing AM/SSB CB operation."

  26.965..CB, to 27.405 (PR27) 40 FM CEPT "EURO" channels   10kHz spacings with gaps
          Allowed in the UK since 1988, this is now a Euro band as agreed by an ERC decision
          in 1996. These CEPT channels are the original USA freqs, known as the "mid" channels.
          Shared with ISM, and up to 27.28= with SRD (models - AM on colour coded channels)  (USA models)

  26.965  01
  26.975  02       +"Black" (Models code)
  26.985  03
  26.995     "Brown" / 3A
  27.005  04
  27.015  05       +27.020 "Brown/Red" (5a)
  27.025  06
  27.035  07
  27.045     "Red"     +Test/Dev / 7A
  27.055  08
  27.065  09       +27.070 "Red/Orange" (9a)
  27.075  10
  27.085  11
  27.095     "Orange"  +Railway SRDs / 11A
  27.105  12
  27.115  13       +27.120 "Orange/Yellow" (13a), +ISM, ex Paging (Test/Dev.),  & 27.162
  27.125  14
  27.135  15
  27.145     "Yellow" / 15A
  27.155  16
  27.165  17       +27.170 "Yellow/Green" (17a)
  27.175  18
  27.185  19
  27.195     "Green" / 19A
  27.205  20           from 20 to 40  channel num = first two decimals except 23 to 25...
  27.215  21       +27.220 "Green/Blue" (21a)
  27.225  22
  27.235  24 !                    ex 22A
  27.245  25 !     +"Blue (UK)"   ex 22B before 1977
  27.255  23 !     +"Blue (US)"   ex top channel until 1977
  27.265  26       +27.270 "Blue/Grey" or sometimes "White" (26a)
    to
  27.405  40           27.315 31 Calling?

          pre-1958 : USA Ham band at 26.96-27.23 very underused, and there was little business/military
          use up to 28MHz. Model control on 27.255 was inadequate and shared with all sorts of paging.
          11.sep.1958 : CB starts, on 22 new 10kHz channels in the old ham band, fitted around 5 new model
          channels later known as 3A, 7A, 11A, 15A and 19A. The old model channel was allocated to CB as channel
          23 as well as remaining as the sixth model channel. The two-channel gap between 22 and 23 gave rise
          to pirate channels 22A and 22B in the Business Band that couldn't yet be used for CB.
          1.jan.1977 : more CB channels added - there had been plans for 99 channels up to 27.995 but it was
          decided not to allow a span of more than 440kHz - to prevent intermod breakthrough to any 455kHz
          receiver Intermediate Frequency stages. The business band lost 27.23 to 27.41 to CB, the new channels
          (24 onwards) filled in the reclaimed gap between 22 and 23, and then continued up to 27.405 to make 40
          channels in all. The five newer model freqs (50kHz apart) are now part of an allocation up to 27.28= in the
          UK with channel 25 now being "Blue" (27.245) and channel 02 now "Black", amongst other interleaved channels.

          The mid channels are transposed up and down the spectrum by multiples of 450kHz to create
          extra sets of 40 channels such as "hi" and "lo", including the gaps and sequence jumps!

          CB should be license-free! Wakey wakey, UK!
          Very commendable, I'm sure, but licensing is really needed as a mechanism to stop idiots using
          it - licenses can be revoked. Interesting issue. Maybe a license should be for life... (unless forfeited).

          27.415..CB freeband Hi channels 1-40, to 27.855 (mid band + 1 x 450kHz)

          27.41=...                  Alarms (27.45)
          27.41=...                  future Digital CB, to 27.51 (provisional plans)
          27.5= ... Mobile, to 28    Weather balloons (sondes)

  27.555  International "Freeband" calling, USB, hi channel 12
          Callers announce the freq they'll move to, usually between 27.41 and 28MHz in 5kHz chs. Very civilised!

  27.601..CB, to 27.99125  (27/81) UK ONLY - 40 FM 10kHz channels allocated 2.nov.1981
  27.601  ch 1     MHz = (channel x 0.01) + 27.59125        Ch = first two decimals -60 +1
    to
  27.991  ch 40    09=emergency 14=calling 19=mobile

          27.865..CB freeband Hi-hi channels 1-11a, to 27.995 (mid band + 2 x 450kHz)

          CB can be fairly useful (when you want to speak to normal people, not just radio 
          nutters), but what a pity we're stuck with an HF allocation clogged up with 
          foreign SSB rather too often...   We need a system that allows silent monitoring, 
          like CTCSS, or (even better) a 460 MHz system as they do in the USA, Australia etc.
          NOTE: (oct98) it looks like PMR 446 will do nicely, apart from the low power.


  28=...  Amateur 10m band, to 29.7=  primary   CW,USB,Satellite,FM
  28.3... Voice... (and other modes)
  29.3=.. Satellite, to 29.5=
  29.51.. FM, to 29.69   10kHz channels
  29.6    FM calling
  29.61...Repeaters, to 29.69 (split: -0.1)
          Various parts of these channels used for repeaters in different regions
          with the remaining channels used for simplex.


          The use of HF spectrum as we know it changes near 26.1MHz, where usage becomes more 
          like VHF/6 meters - services intended to be local, rather than long-distance.
          You'd think that if any Tom, Dick or Harriet can use 4 Watts on 26 MHz (CEPT CB),
          that a licenced Class B amateur would be able to use at least 3W (novice level) 
          somewhere in this band, wouldn't you? But no, 30MHz is the cut off point (despite
          not corresponding to the edge of any practical band usage) where you need to pass a
          Morse test just to be able to use SSB! And who do they survey, to see if things
          should change? The very people who have already suffered the ordeal!
          SELFISH B*****DS. Don't get caught up in the way things happened in the past, riding
          waves of nostalgia, but concentrate on the present, the future, what today's very
          different generations could enjoy - share your precious bands with those who can
          already do the same thing at 50MHz when the conditions are right. When ever we're at
          work, that is. Or make the Morse test need to be re-taken every five years, we'll
          see how quickly it gets dropped then!

          Suppose there was no Amateur Radio, but such a service was being planned, to start
          next year, with the rules and regulation we currently endure. There would be an uproar,
          wouldn't there? Nobody would seriously suggest a morse requirement. I rest my case.
          We do not NEED different licence classes apart from Novice and Full. And don't use that
          tired old "wally filter" argument, I've already gone to the trouble of passing the RA Exam.
          Don't interfere with MY life, go and live your OWN.

          I do acknowledge the "true spirit of amateur radio" (homebrew and experimentation) IS
          different from the fanatical pursuit of "radio DXing". I'd settle then for a two class
          system where existing Novices and Class B licencees could use HF SSB on restricted parts
          of the bands using type-approved equipment. With DXing available to the public with properly
          regulated callsigns maybe 27MHz would become a peaceful haven for local FM comms, and the
          Aero (R) 6.6MHz channels could be clear at last.

          And I DO realise that CW can get through when all else fails, and that if I ever reached
          12 words per minutes I might get to enjoy it. Maybe. But I object strongly to HAVING to.
          Similar argument - you've no right to force someone to drink something that you're sure
          they'll like. And if you disagree with that, change the subject to sex then try again.
          Again, the Golden Rule in life - don't live someone else's life for them - live your own!

          Glad I've got that off my chest...

          See "How to become a Sad Radio Amateur" for more on this, and other amateur issues.

          For the unlicensed, or simply licensed, there are three main types of radio use:
          1) Low-power handheld - now well served by PMR 446
          2) Base/mobile use that is well served by CB SOME OF THE TIME
          3) DX-ing - not well served at all, leading to the 27MHz SSB and 6.6MHz problems.
          I suggest scrapping the present CB system and allowing type-approved use of USB on 
          3kHz channels between 26.96 and 28MHz to cater for the DX-er (hopefully world-wide)
          and legitimize what's already happening. Callsigns would help.
          Also there is a need for the kind of local service that allows a low-powered
          service with roof-mounted antennas to acheive local CB-like ranges WITHOUT any
          possibility of SSB interference (i.e. above 30MHz) preferably using CTCSS/DCS as
          with PMR 446. With CTCSS, and given the current demand, I would imagine 20 channels
          or less would meet the demand. A 200kHz section of spectrum allocated throughout
          Europe somewhere between 30 and 217 is hardly asking too much is it? The same
          bandwidth as ONE radio mic channel? Or extend PMR 446 with 8 more channels,
          all available to handhelds with captive antennas, but the new channels available
          to base/mobile sets with external antennas and a couple of Watts of power.

          The above requirements change if code-free Amateur Radio allows the DX enthusiast 
          access to HF without learning Morse. In that case, 27MHz SSB should eventually ease off,
          and to make matters bearable for FM users of the band I would say CTCSS is needed.
           


--29.7=---VHF-------------------
          Mobile
          military  (30.3-30.5 and 32.15-32.45 EU1 harmonised)
          + SRD, mics, R/C Models, Cordless Phones, Alarms, Hospital Paging

          On rare occasions ion layer conditions allow the reception of FM business/police signals here from the USA.

  29.97925 Actual frequency with 10m wavelength. If the ham band went to 30MHz, and H.F. was defined
          by wavelength instead of frequency range, then Class B hams could use the top 20kHz!

  31.0375.Cordless phone base, to 31.2125 (duplex, split +8.9: 39.9375-40.1125) 25kHz channels MPT1384
          (4 more ch. in Europe, up to 40.2125)   new in 1997
         
  31.725..Hospital Paging, to 31.775
          Speech in emergency only. Returns at 161/164

  35.0... Model aircraft,  to 35.25   (26x 10kHz)  100mW  channels 60 to 85
  35.3375.Marine databuoys, to 35.4625 - 25kHz, 250mW
          36.5.. Prefered band for use by visiting foreigners for temporary mics use, to 38.5 (espec. 36.7, 37.1, 37.9)

  36.7    Cordless domestic audio devices, & 37.1  (18kHz bandwidth each)  commonly stereo left/right, deregulated
 
          39.9375...phone handsets, to 40.1125 - see 31.0375

  40.500  Distress, Rescue (often wrongly listed as 40.050)   40.5 x 3 = 121.5

  40.66=..ISM, to 40.7= (40.68 +/- 20kHz)  ** proposed new Euro amateur beacons band **
  40.665..Surface models,  to 40.995  (34x 10kHz)  100mW cars and boats  channels 665 to 995

  41= ... Harmonised Military Band (EU1)




--47=--------------------------
          Band I - TV Broadcasting (not in UK since 1984 - so, great for TV DXing!)
          UK: Mobile - SRD, Radio Mics, Alarms

          Euro TV 7MHz ch.: E2 47-54, E3 54-61, E4 61-68
          Old UK  5MHz ch.: B1 41.25-46.25, B2 48-53, B3 53-58, B4 58-63, B5 63-68 (snd. @ +0.25, vis. @ +3.75)
 
          There was a pre-war 56MHz ham band in the UK, and the 5m band (58.5-60) for three years post-war.

          47.0 ... 
  47.3=...Alarms & Cordless phones, to 47.55=
          47.310   Security alarms,  & 47.319, 47.331, 47.356
          47.4     Vehicle alarms
          47.419   CT0 base,    & 47.431  - duplex, see 77.5125 to be phased out. None new after April 2005
          47.443...CT0 mobile, to 47.544  - duplex, see 1642-1782 kHz   to be phased out
  47.550=.JFMG, to 48.880= - talkback (base - split to 52MHz) + links
          48.3     links - 200kHz stereo, 2/30/365 days
          48.4=... also used for low power conference/touring, to 48.55=
          48.425   links -  50kHz mono,   2/30/365 days
          48.475   links -  50kHz mono,   directional TX antenna
          48.525   links -  50kHz mono,   10W max ERP

          48.76... unapproved US cordless phone handsets, to 49.99 (base 43-47)
  48.880=.Paging - 12.5kHz - 48.975 to 49.4875  one-way only
          48.975   STH
          48.9875  STH
          49.2625  SRBR
          49.2875  SRBR
          49.425...Hospitals, to 49.475 (speech only in emergencies) returns at 161/164

          49.5= ... 
  49.82...SRD, to 49.98  baby alarms etc.


  50=...  Amateur Radio 6m band, to 52= (varies in other countries).  Primary.  See GJ4ICD site.
          Beacons...
  50.09...CW/SSB...
  50.11   Inter-continental SSB DX
  50.15   SSB centre-of-activity
  50.5=.. data/digital, to 50.7=
  50.72.. UK Repeaters, to 50.88    (split: +0.5)
  51=...  secondary...
  51.21.. repeater inputs, to 51.39 (both UK and Euro systems)
  51.41.. FM simplex, to 51.59      (20 kHz channels)
  51.51   FM calling channel
  51.81.. Euro. repeaters, to 51.99 (split: -0.6)

  52.0=.. JFMG, to 52.95= - talkback (mobile - split to 48Hz) + links
          52.75  links - 200kHz stereo - TX antenna directional
          52.85=.also used for low power conference/touring, to 52.95=
          52.875 links -  50kHz mono  + short term OB
          52.925 links -  50kHz mono  + short term OB
 
          52.95=...
  53.75=..JFMG, to 55.75= - links (5W)
          53.8    low power (10mW) 50kHz conference/touring, and 54.1 54.3 54.7 55.4 55.5 



          Band I 55.75000 - 68.00000 MHz ... channels will be made available to CBS & PBR services... 
          ... No assignments at present...  380 dual channels

          55.75=... PBR, see 62.75
  57.5=...CBS (planned), to 60.75= (split +7: 64.5 -67.75)
  60.75=..JFMG links (5W)
  62.75=..PBR (planned), to 64.5=  (split -7: 55.75-57.50)
          64.5=... CBS, see 57.5=
          67.7625..Land Mobile, single


          (67.5.. Prefered band for use by visiting foreigners for temporary PMR use, to 68)


          There is a Euro plan (25-08) to re-organise 54-68:
          61.0125 ... Base, to 67.9875 (split -7: 54.0125-60.9875)




--68=-----Low Band-------------
          Mobile, military, emergency services    (French splits -4.05, -5, -3)
          Military PTARMIGAN access links

          There is a Euro plan (25-08) to re-organise this band:
          77.8125 ...  Base, to 87.4875 (split -9.8: 68.0125-77.6875)   single: 77.7-77.8 and 74.8-75.2 & 84.6-85

          Various countries overseas allow FM radio broadcasting from 65-74 and 76-87.5 (eg OIRT), this often reaches us.
 
          68.08125= start of VHF Low for PBR, boundary
  68.0875.PBR, to 69.9875  single, dual: see 81.5875

          (68.816=.. JFMG, to 69.904= - Talkback base (12.5kHz - split to 75MHz) to cease in 2000)


 -70=--...Amateur 4m band, to 70.5=     (since 1956; when 70.2-70.4)
          Secondary. Class A & B only - no novices.
          started as UK (G/M/2) only, with British Gibraltar (ZB) and Cyprus (5B), and Eire (EI)
          now with South Africa (ZR), and Slovenia (S5)
  70.0... Beacons...
  70.03.. CW/SSB
  70.15   Meteor Scatter calling
  70.185  Cross-band centre-of-activity
  70.2    SSB calling
  70.25.. FM simplex, to 70.4875 (12.5 kHz channels)
  70.26   old AM frequency still in use
  70.3    RTTY/FAX
  70.3125 data/digital, to 70.375
  70.45   FM Calling channel
  70.4875 Packet
 -70.5=---

  70.5125.H.O. - Fire Service mainscheme, to 71.5= (with 80-81.5)  12.5kHz AM/FM
 
  71.5125.PBR, to 72.7875  single, dual: see 85.0125

          72.8... MoD, to 76.7  (73.3-74.1 EU1 harmonised)

          (74.6875... JFMG, to 74.7125 - Talkback)

          75.0  CAA ILS runway marker beacons (Guard band 74.8-75.2) 200ft, 1 & 3.5 miles from touchdown

          (75.2625=.. JFMG, to 75.3= - Talkback mobile (split to 69MHz) (+airborne) to cease in 2000)

  76.7125.PBR, to 77.4875  single, dual: see 86.7125 ...
  77.5... PBR, to 77.9875 (used to be paired with 87.5 to 88)
          77.5125  CT0 extended Cordless phones, & 77.55 (mobile; base at 47.431 & 47.419)   to be phased out
          77.625   once mobile paired with 82.8 base
                   
                   Four channels between 77.75 and 77.9875 were once mobile paired with base at +8.7125/8.7
                   in the 86MHz single section, between 86.4625 and 86.6875


          78=... MoD  (79-79.7 EU1 harmonised)

          (78.183=..JFMG, to 78.259= - wide area or location talkback - 12.5kHz)

          80... H.O. mobile, to 81.5= - see 70.5

            (81.5 Radio Astronomy - Interplanetary Scintillation - Cambridge +/- 1MHz?)



  81.5=...PBR / CBS - new for the late 1980s
          Lxxx = (freq - 78.2) / 0.0125       freq = (Lnumber x 0.0125) + 78.2
 
  81.5125.PBR, to 81.575
          81.5125 L265
  81.5875.PBR, to 83.4875 (split -13.5: 68.0875-69.9875)
          82.125  L314 Demo/"parking" (temporary use)  (:68.625)
 
          82.3375 L331 CBS

          Somewhere around 82.8 the RA's channel numbering seems to miss 0.2MHz :
          Now Lxxx = (freq - 78.0) / 0.0125       freq = (Lnumber x 0.0125) + 78.0

          82.875  L390 CBS
            to              CBS "predominantly" in 25kHz steps - and 83.0125 too
          83.050  L404 CBS



          83.5... H.O.
          84  ... MoD, to 85=  - RAF, Mil.Police, mountain rescue    (ISM at 84.0 +/- 4kHz)


  85= ... Private Business Radio, to 87.5= 
          PBR listed so that you can avoid tuning in by accident.
          (same info can be found on Radiocomms Agency site anyway)  
          12.5kHz channels. (Started in 1947 with 100 kHz channels, 25 kHz from 1960)
          Water co.s, councils, AA/RAC, forestry, customs, taxis etc.

          Lxxx = (freq - 85) / 0.0125       freq = (Lnumber x 0.0125) + 85

  85.0125.PBR, to 86.2875 (split -13.5: 71.5125-72.7875)
          85.0125 ch L001
          85.875  STH (:72.375)   or either, singly    Also used for demos and parking
          86.2875 ch L103
  86.3....PBR, to 86.7
          86.3125 Land SAR
          86.325  Land SAR some areas
          86.675  JFMG, Talkback (12.5kHz) Wales and west.
  86.7125.PBR, to 87.4875 (split -10:   76.7125-77.4875)  no longer extends to 87.9875 (or starts from 86.9625)
          86.8125.JFMG, to 86.8375 - wide area duplex Talkback (12.5kHz) (+airborne)

          The 86.7= to 86.95= section used to be used for 10 x 25kHz links, same -10 split.

          87.34.. Eurosignal paging, to 87.415 (4 x 25kHz channels A-D) heard in UK
                  from Europe (used to be a constant AM tone with pips and doodle-doo noises!)
                  (could be heard on tuners at 87.5 - it's now bursts of FM data, since mar.1998)
 
          87.4875 L199 (highest freq. Low-Band channel)
          87.49375= boundary (above 87.4875 by 6.25 kHz - half a 12.5 kHz channel)




--87.5=------------------------
          Band II - FM Broadcasting (100 kHz channels) 87.6-107.9    RDS
          Independent Radio managed by the Radio Authority.
          See the British DX Club's Lists.    Tuners.  SBS.
          Latest news : Newstide.

  87.6... RSLs (87.7 primary)  more
  88.0=
  88.1... BBC Radio 2  - BBC sub-bands employ a "standard (2.2/5.2 MHz) spacing."
  90.2... BBC Radio 3
  92.4... BBC Radio 4, BBC Wales/Scotland
  94.6... BBC Local, Radio 4, ILR  (lower local sub-band, to 97.6)
  96.1... ILR, some BBC
  97.7... BBC Radio 1
  99.8... INR1 - Classic FM (+RDS DCI DGPS - Focus FM), ILR
 102.0... ILR  (upper local sub-band, to 108=)
 103.5... BBC Local, Radio 4, ILR
 105.0... ILR, regional, RSLs
 107.0... RSLs, Small-scale and other low power broadcasting, to 107.9

          "evolved in an ad hoc fashion starting (1955 - Wrotham, Kent) with three BBC services radiated in the band
          88-94.6 MHz. The remainder of the band was initially allocated to mobile services."   "BBC local radio was
          introduced in London in 1970, in the sub-band just released (1967) at 94.6-97.6 MHz.
          Independent radio followed with the opening of Capital and LBC (later News Direct) in 1973 in the same sub
          -band."  - Overview of UK VHF radio planning.  Would-be pirates should read this!
          ...although : "the current standards work well in practice, but they do not appear to reflect the way in
          which the majority of listening is done, and may be unnecessarily conservative."  :o)
          Also, receiver standards are based upon current equipment, which may be very poor. I say to heck with that,
          assume decent eqipment and let the cheapskates upgrade!

          87.5 to 88= MHz was once used for base PMR (split -10: 77.5-77.9875).

          97.0 to 102.0 MHz was used by the H.O. for Emergency Services AMRT base, 
          until the late 1980s - 25kHz channels (split: 80 to 85)

          105 to 108 MHz used from 1969 until the early 1990s for mobile JRC PBR (split: 138-141),
          and became available to Broadcasting in 1995.

          It's no wonder pirate radio gained a reputation for wiping out police and private comms!

          Near 107.8 was used for Local Authority Alarms until the end of 1995, now on 160.55-160.575
          and 168.2875 & 168.9375. Some old lists show freqs as 107.79375, 107.80625, 107.81875


          Long distance reception is more common via the troposphere here, rather than the ionosphere...
          i.e  a "lift" rather than "sporadic-E". "Tropo" tends to improve the higher the frequency, and lower
          frequencies are not affected; whereas ionospheric "skip" builds up from HF, maybe reaching as high as
          150 MHz rarely - but leaves higher bands unaffected.

          DSI2 recommends that by 2020 when DAB is established, the band may be reduced to 97.5-108 for local and
          community broadcasting only.




-108=--------------------------
          Aero. Navigation 

 108.05.. ILS/VOR/ATIS, to 117.95 (50 kHz channels)
          ILS 108-112

          There was a ham band at 112MHz (USA Amateur history), 2.5 meters, from 1938 to 1945

          mil comms are sometimes reported here, usually 117-118



-117.975=----------------------
          Aero. Mobile "Civil Air Band" - NATS National Air Traffic Services, Volmet
          See Javiation's list.  RTCA. ICAO.
          Used by the military too, of course.

 118.0... AM comms, to 136.975  (760 x 25 kHz channels)  
          The use of 136 - 137 dates from 1990, and it's still shared with satellite services until 1.1.2002.

          Offsets of several kHz may be used when two or more transmitters use the same channel at once.

          Until the 1970s 50kHz channel spacing was used, and some channels are now three
          times closer with 8.33kHz spacings;
          this started in Europe in 1999, and in the UK in 2000.
          So if the scheme is ever extended to the full band, will the first channel be 117.983 or 118.0 ?
          (given the current 117.975 boundary due to 25kHz use of 118.0) ?

          For "8.33", Channel Names are used, such as :
          132.000, 132.005 (same but 8.33 bandwidth), 132.010 (132.0083), 132.015 (132.0166)
          However, don't panic about needing new equipment, 8.33 is only used in a small segment of the band,
          and not for local traffic. You'll be able to enter frequencies using 5 or 10kHz steps and not be more than
          1.66 kHz out, and likewise you'll still be able to search in 10kHz steps and that will be faster then 8.33!
          It's no more likely than now that two adjacent channels will be strongly in use at any one location.
          In any case, the great thing about airband as far as searching goes, is that the controllers TELL the pilots
          what frequency to go to next - so finding any new channels isn't really that hard!

          The USA NexCom solution, though, is for digital TDMA on existing 25kHz channels
          (& also retaining AM capability) using 8-phase shift keying, giving 4 time slots
          within 120ms frames, providing for a mix of voice and data.
          Coverage of 112-117.975 is included in the spec.s - and they haven't decided about the UHF band yet.


 121.5    Distress, EPIRBs     (?120.875 Distress, discrete?)
 121.6    airport Fire Services
 121.9    common Ground frequency
 122.475  Balloons and Hangliders
 123.1    SAR
 129.7... many private airline channels, to 132
 130.1    Gliders, +130.125 +130.4
 131.725  ACARS Packet data  (Europe & USA) & 131.525   [Hear it here!]
 132.0... 8.33 sub-band, to 134.8 - for over FL245 (FL195 France)
 135.375  London VOLMET (main)
 136.8... company ops, to 136.875
 136.9... data only, to 136.975

          Air-air chat (unofficial) is sometimes heard on the first channel 118.0 and the "old" last 135.975
          and "new" last 136.975 - more popular perhaps is 123.45 even though that's allocated for other
          purposes. 125.125 is also sometimes used... it has to be a "neat" number!

          CAA short-term : (displays, events etc.)
          121.175, 130.500 Air/Gnd
          130.675, 132.900 App/Twr
          121.925  Gnd




-137=-----Mid Band-------------
          Mobile, military, Aero OR, emergency services      (French splits +/-4.6)
          Military PTARMIGAN access links

 137=...  Satellite, to 138=

          Weather Satellites, 137.3, 137.5, 137.62, 137.85 etc.   Tracking.
          FM picture data not only too wide for most scanners (50kHz) but mind the Doppler shift too!
          More.   Good AmSat Keplers tutorial.

          LEO MSS Sat. downlinks, to 138= (up at 148-149.9)   Orbcomm (4800 bps FSK)

 138=...  MoD, to 143

          137.975..Paging, to 138.2 (25kHz channels)
                   Police: 4 air-ground-air ch.s at +/- 6.25kHz around 138.1 & 138.3 (two 12.5kHz chs in one 25kHz ch)
          138.2=...future Euro. SRD band, to 138.45=
 
          138.7   SAR secondary

 139.5=...JRC PBR, to 140.5= (split +8.5: 148-149)  Trunked.
          Electricity (mainly below 140) and Gas (mainly above 140) industries. MPT1327 spec.
          139.51875-140.48125 J22-J99, main channels 12.5kHz spaced (no J01-J21) 6.25kHz offsets   (RA's M802-M879)
          139.525  -140.475   K22-K98, interleaved (J+6.25kHz)                                     (RA's M902-M978)
          JRC paging in channel K90/M884/M887 140.375/148.875  (simplex at J90/M883/M886 below & J91/M885/M888 above)

          From 1969 until the early 1990s the band 138-141 and the top of Band II was used for PMR (JRC/rail)
          138.01875.. JRC, to 140.94375 (split -33: 105.01875-107.94375) AM, 12.5kHz channels (6.25kHz offsets)
          (channel 1 at 138.00625 was never used)
          (old 140.96875 STH channel no longer used)

          Some JFMG in the Channel Islands at 139.55 & 139.575 (base), and simplex at 139.65


 141=...  JFMG, wide area Talkback (75kHz max), to 141.5= (previously 141.9=)   6.25 kHz offsets
          Simplex and duplex (split: mobiles at 212MHz). +airborne.   Not in Channel Islands.
(140.993  London only)
 141.006..ILR, to 141.193
 141.206..BBC radio, to 141.256
 141.268  not available to BBC - & 141.281
 141.293..BBC radio, to 141.318  (.318 BBC News)
 141.375  BBC 75kHz wideband
 141.418  BBC
 141.4625 BBC 75kHz wideband

          143.0=... H.O., to 144= - see 152
          143.625  Space - MIR station (143.6-143.65) - also 121.75 & 130.165 FM


 144=...  Amateur 2m band, to 146=   Primary - IARU Bandplan:
          EME (Moonbounce)...
 144.035..CW
 144.150..SSB - calling 144.3
 144.4... Beacons, to 144.49
 144.5... All modes
 144.725  in the south - you'll appear on F5ZBF when there's a lift...
 144.8... Digital, to 144.99
 145.0... Repeater inputs, to 145.1875
 145.2... FM Simplex, to 145.5875 (12.5 kHz channels) mostly older 25kHz channels listed:

 145.2    S8,  V16   Raynet priority, MIR (with 145.8)
 145.2125      V17
 145.225  S9,  V18   Raynet priority
 145.25   S10, V20   Slow Morse
 145.275  S11, V22
 145.3    S12, V24
 145.325  S13, V26   + French R8b/RV26   F5ZBF repeater Caen (split: normal -0.6)
 145.35   S14, V28   + French R9b/RV28
 145.375  S15, V30   + French R10b/RV30
 145.4    S16, V32   + French R11b/RV32
 145.425  S17, V34   + French R12b/RV34
 145.45   S18, V36
 145.475  S19, V38
 145.5    S20, V40   FM calling channel
 145.525  S21, V42   GB2RS news, Sundays
 145.55   S22, V44
 145.575  S23, V46
 145.5875      V47
          (Repeaters 145.6 - 145.7875, split: -0.6)
 145.600  R0,  RV48  FZ3VHF St.Brieuc
 145.6125 R0x, RV49  F5ZBL  Evreux
 145.625  R1,  RV50  FZ3VHD Quimper
 145.6375 R1x, RV51  F5ZDE  Chateauroux
 145.650  R2,  RV52  
 145.6625 R2x, RV53  F5ZCR  Vernon
 145.675  R3,  RV54  F1ZBX  Rennes
 145.6875 R3x, RV55  FZ2VHF Lille
 145.700  R4,  RV56  F6ZCE  Alencon
 145.7125 R4x, RV57
 145.725  R5,  RV58  FZ2VHC Le Havre
 145.7375 R5x, RV59
 145.750  R6,  RV60
 145.7625 R6x, RV61
 145.775  R7,  RV62  FZ3VHB Les Herbiers
 145.7875 R7x, RV63  ??  or...
 145.790  proposed 16kHz data links
 145.8=...Satellite Service, to 146=   Sat. News
          145.825 SunSat FM (parrot) - & rep. uplink: 436.291   launched 23feb99

          Are V channel numbers supposed to make life easier?!
          Oh yes, 145.7375, let's see... 7.375 times 8... 59 of course.
          We can all do that in our heads, can't we?
          If it's not simple and intuitive (for telling a contact to QSY)
          then what IS the point? Saying "decimal 73" will do the job better.



          146=...H.O., see 154

          148=...JRC,LEO, see 139.5 and 137
          (Some JFMG in the Channel Islands at 148.575 & 148.725 - mobile)

 149... MoD, to 154

          149.9=...Satellite Navigation, to 150.05=
          150.05=..Radio Astronomy, to 152=    + Oil-slick markers (150.5= - 150.55=)
          151.675  unlicensed US "DOT" radios (more) +151.955 &154/462/467...

 152...   H.O. - Emergency Services, to 153= (with 143-144)   mostly police FM.  12.5kHz

          153.025..Paging, to 153.475  (25kHz channels)
                   FSK POCSAG (bursts)  more   [Hear it here!]   Used by Trafficmaster
          153.025  FLEX paging (continuous) +153.325   [Hear it here!]

 154...   H.O. - Emergency Services, to 155.975 (with 146-148)   mostly police, AM/FM.  12.5kHz
          "The (TR/RX) offset for Police/Fire varies to stop interaction between channels
           when talkthrough is on - this is historic as it was believed that common
           offsets could not be used on the same site; today it is done everywhere." - thanks Andrew W. 


          There is a Euro plan (25-08) to re-organise 146-156:  (boundaries)
          151.4 ... Base, to 156 (split -7: 146.8-151.4)   single: 146-146.8 and 149.9-150.05 & 154.5-154.65




-156=--------------------------
          Mobile,  Marine VHF (SAR, MBR/CSR)
          PMR/PBR + CBS + STH, Ambulances, Paging (ERMES), SRD, mobile data, Civil Defence

 156.0... Marine, to 158.525=   single OR dual: see 160.625
 158.5375.PBR,    to 160.5375   single OR dual: see 163.0375
          ... alarms
 160.6... Marine, to 163.025=   single OR dual (split -4.6: 156.025-158.4)

          Marine, to 163 - International and private 25kHz channels, single and dual (split -4.6).
          Was 50 kHz spacing until SOLAS 1972, then new channels were fitted in, in between...

          Band structure:  two main sections linked by a 4.6MHz frequency shift
          Dual channels : international and private
          156.0-158.4 lines up with 160.6-163.0 at 4.6MHz higher, the lower section being the ship/mobile
          side of dual-freq. channels, the higher side being for shore/base. The international channels
          finish at 157.425/162.025 and the rest are private channels, which may be dual or single.
          Single channels:
          156.375-156.875 and 160.975-161.475 are not joined, and have single-freq usage with international
          channels at 156 and private at 161. 

          Between 158.4 and 160.6 the mobile channels of a PBR band can be found. As this 163.0375-165.0375
          band utilises a 4.5 MHz split, the mobile side covers 158.5375-160.5375 - the gap at 158.425 to
          158.5 is used for a few more single-freq. private marine channels, and at 160.55 to 160.575 there
          are three local authority alarm channels.

          For single/mobile freqs..   MHz = (ch number x 0.05) + 156     add 4.6 for the shore freq.
          Because channels 60 and above are interleaved, you need to EITHER:
          Subtract 2.975 MHz AFTERWARDS   ** OR **  subtract 59.5 from the channel number BEFORE

          There are Euro plans to use the paired freq.s for channels 87 and 88 separately, to accommodate VTS
          (now called AIS - Automatic Identification and Surveillance) at 162 MHz, and allow simplex at 157 MHz.
          Also plans to allow use of channels 75 and 76 for voice, which were unused guardbands for channel 16.
          (Earlier plans had included simplex use of channels 18 and 82-86)
          The latest RA info sheet shows the breakup of channels 87 and 88, and the introduction of 75 and 76.

          Channel 88 used to be used for Radio Lighthouses, a null was swept around the compass... i.e. 
          you'd count the "pips" and when the signal briefly disappeared that would give you a bearing

          Channel 99 (160.6) started life as channel 00, but apparently 00 is what the coastguards dial into
          their consoles to clear them! Do not confuse with what would be the real ch99 on 157.975 / 162.575
          - a private channel which (just to confuse matters) is actually used as a land-based CBS channel!

          Some sets may be set from "international" to "USA" mode, and then some
          of the dual frequency channels can be used as single (ship channel) frequencies;
          (e.g. 157.125 = 82a for USA single freq use - can't be heard on an "international" set)
          which could be handy for a "private" channel, no-one else would hear you! (apart
          from coast stations that use that channel. So you'd want to pick a clear one - and
          bear in mind that if you don't you won't be able to hear them telling you to move!)
          Maybe it's best not to, then. Interesting thought though, isn't it?

          160.9 used to be used for ITV talkback, I'm told.
          Also used for talkback was 161.3875 (12.5 kHz),
          and within the channels 161.325 and 161.45

          The RA's own channel numbering is as follows:
          Channel numbers  1440 (156)  to  2000 (163.0)  can be traced back (in
          12.5kHz steps) to the start of a sequence where channel 1 is 138.0125
          - this applies up to the last Mid-band channel M2163 (165.0375)   and
          down in the JRC bands  i.e. M802 being the high side of the 148.01875
          & 139.51875 pair, give or take a half channel offset (-6.25kHz)   (as
          happens positively at 448 / 431 ).
          160.6 is RA channel 1808, 156 is channel 1440 - the difference of 368
          being 4.6 MHz worth of 12.5 kHz channels.  Marine dual pairs take the
          channel number of the higher (shore) frequency. For single use of the
          private section 157.45-163 the channels numbers are shifted along  in
          sequence by 1000.
 


 Let's track this in two columns 4.6 MHz apart...

 ** First, two single freq.s...
 ---------------------------    -------
 160.600 99 Coastguards         156.000   0 Coastguards

 ** Now dual freq. pairs, 
 ** Port Ops & Public Correspondence (phone - link calls)
                   Shore/Base   Ship/mobile  4.6 MHz lower
 --------------------------------------
                      160.625---156.025  60
                      160.650---156.050   1
                      160.675---156.075  61
                      160.700---156.100   2
                      160.725---156.125  62
                      160.750---156.150   3
                      160.775---156.175  63
                      160.800---156.200   4
                      160.825---156.225  64
                      160.850---156.250   5
                      160.875---156.275  65
 160.900  ???                   156.300   6 intership1 and SAR
                      160.925---156.325  66
                      160.950---156.350   7

 ** Now single freq.s           Base/Mobile
 ----------------------------   -------
 160.975  CSR-1838              156.375  67 (intership9 away from coasts) + SAR/Safety/Coastguard
 161 to 161.2  Paging returns   156.400   8 intership2
               (31/49/459)      156.425  68 ports
                                156.450   9 intership5/ports/Pilots
                                156.475  69 intership8/ports/Customs
                                156.500  10 (intership3 away from coasts)/ports/pollution/SAR + UK Safety Info
                                156.525  70 DSC Digital SelCall ONLY, GMDSS NO VOICE
 161.15   CSR-1852              156.550  11 ports/SAR
 161.175  CSR-1854              156.575  71 ports
 161.2    CSR-1856              156.600  12 ports
 161.225  CSR-1858              156.625  72 intership6
 161.25   CSR-1860              156.650  13 intership4/ports + International Nav Safety Comms
 161.275  Marine 10mW Alarms    156.675  73 (intership7 away from coasts)/ports/SAR  + Safety Info
 161.300  CSR-1864 (OBH)        156.700  14 Ports
                                156.725  74 Ports/locks/swingbridges
 161.350  On-board handhelds    156.750  15 intership11/ports/ 1W on-board
 161.375  CSR-1870              156.775  75 Ports, Navigation comms only, 1W
 161.400  CSR-1872 / Nav.?      156.800  16 Calling, Distress
 161.425  M2 (marinas)          156.825  76 Ports, Navigation comms only, 1W
                                156.850  17 intership12/ports/ 1W on-board
 161.475  CSR-1878              156.875  77 intership10

 ** Now dual freq. pairs again
 ** Port ops up to 161.725 and Pub.Corresp. from 161.750 (both: 78,81,84)
                      Shore     Ship
 --------------------------------------
                      161.500---156.900  18
                      161.525---156.925  78
                      161.550---156.950  19
                      161.575---156.975  79
                      161.600---157.000  20
                      161.625---157.025  80 Marinas primary CSR-1890
                      161.650---157.050  21
                      161.675---157.075  81
                      161.700---157.100  22
                      161.725---157.125  82
                      161.750---157.150  23
                      161.775---157.175  83
                      161.800---157.200  24
                      161.825---157.225  84
                      161.850---157.250  25
                      161.875---157.275  85
                      161.900---157.300  26
                      161.925---157.325  86
                      161.950---157.350  27
                      161.975---157.375  87 old, paired use
 161.975 AIS1                   157.375  87 Port ops
                      162.000---157.400  28
                      162.025---157.425  88 old, paired use - No more "Radio Lighthouses"
 162.025 AIS2                   157.425  88 Port Ops

 ** Private channels,  single OR dual  CSR/MBR
 ** and some land PMR and CBS, same split -4.6
 ** In this part, the pairings  are only shown
 ** for the first and last pair, to save space
 Single           OR  Base      Mobile (or Single)
 ----------------------------   -------
 162.050  CSR-2924 single...    157.450  29  CSR-2556 single
                  OR  162.050---157.450  29  CSR-1924 dual

 162.050  CSR / CBS(Birm.)
 162.0625       CBS(Lond./Birm.)
 162.075  CSR / CBS(Lond./Birm.)
 162.0875       CBS(Lond./Birm.)
 162.100        CBS(Lond./Birm.)
 162.125  CSR

 162.150      ?                 157.550  31  RNLI lifeboats

 162.175        CBS
 162.1875       CBS(Lond./Birm.)
 162.200  CSR / CBS(Lond./Birm.)
 162.2125       CBS(Lond./Birm.)
 162.225        CBS +PMR(Lond. - couriers)
 162.250  CSR
 162.275        CBS +PMR(Lond. - couriers)
 162.300  CSR
 162.325        CBS
 162.3375       CBS(Lond./Birm.)
 162.350  CSR / CBS(Birm.)
 162.3625       CBS(Lond./Birm.)
 162.375        CBS
 162.400  CSR
 162.425        CBS +PMR(Lond. - couriers)

 162.450  Diff. GPS             157.850  37/M marinas secondary  RA-1588

 162.475        CBS
 162.500  CSR
 162.525        CBS(Birm.)
 162.550  CSR
 162.575        CBS
 162.600  CSR
   to       (25kHz)
 162.850  CSR

(162.825  104A Telex            158.225 104B Fax.  no longer used)

 162.875        CBS
 162.900  CSR
 162.925        CBS
 162.950  CSR
 162.975        CBS
 163.000  CSR

 163.000  CSR-3000 single       158.400  48  CSR-2632 single
                      163.000---158.400  48  CSR-2000 dual


          162 MHz "Weather" frequencies (as found on some USA scanners) apply only to
          land-based NOAA transmissions on the North American Continent - it doesn't reach here!


 ** Now private single freq.s   Single
 ----------------------------   -------
 163.025 Diff. GPS              158.425 108 CSR-1634
                                158.450  49 CSR-1636
   0.1 MHz gap where            158.475 109 CSR-1638
  "4.6 split" and               158.500  50 CSR-1640
  "4.5 split" systems meet     -158.525=---



 ** We'll change now to a 4.5 MHz difference, and 12.5 kHz spacings

 163.0375.PBR, to 165.0375  (split -4.5: 158.5375-160.5375)  Mid Band       
          The lowest parts of this section are now filling up with PBR, with
          many CBS (including some multi-channel trunked CBS) - 85 dual channels available.
          Despite this section only being allocated to LAND MOBILE, (12.5 kHz) in some
          books and magazines you may find extra marine channels given (channel number
          greater than 50), either single or -4.6 dual, in the first 150kHz or so. (i.e. ch 53)
          This seems to be a throwback to a bygone age when the marine band was larger.
          Marine channels are 25kHz bandwidth too, so that ruins half of the 12.5kHz channel
          above and below. How wasteful.

          The first 70 per cent used to be used for the old BT RadioTelephones :
 163.0375... BT System 4, to 164.4125 (split -4.5: 158.5375-159.9125)  ch.s U1-U111
          Early versions used from 163.0375 to only 164.2125 as System 4 channels 95 down to 01.
          U57 (163.7375 - base only) was control. 163.025 and 164.425 were boundaries.
          and before that:
 163.050 ... BT System 3, to 164.400 (split -4.5, 25kHz channels 55-1 in reverse!) ch17 164.0 was control.
          (until the 1980's saw the arrival of TACS at 935-950 MHz)


 Single           OR Base       Mobile (or Single)
 ---------------------------------------
                     163.0375---158.5375   M2003 (First ch.)
                     163.050 ---158.550    M2004 CBS
                     163.0625---158.5625   M2005 CBS
                     163.075 ---158.575    M2006 CBS
                    
                     163.100 ---158.600    M2008 CBS
                     163.1125---158.6125   M2009 CBS
                     163.125 ---158.625    M2010 CBS
 163.1375 single
 163.15   single                158.65     ch 53 - Mountain Rescue (25kHz)
 
                     163.200 ---158.700    M2016 CBS
                     163.2125---158.7125   M2017 CBS
                     163.225 ---158.725    M2018 CBS

                     163.2875---158.7875   M2023 STH  (or either singly)

                     163.3125---158.8125   M2025 CBS
                             to                        (except 163.375)
                     163.425 ---158.925    M2034 CBS

                     163.6875---159.1875   M2055 STH  RQAS & Construction only
                     163.750 ---159.250    M2060 STH  (or either singly) Construction only
                     
                     163.775 ---159.275    Data Services Ltd
                        to
                     163.825 ---159.325

                     163.850 ---159.350    M2068 STH  RQAS & Construction only


          this section now PMR, with many STH channels.

                     163.900 ---159.400    M2072 STH  (or  163.9 singly) RQAS only
                     163.925 ---159.425    M2074 STH  (or either singly)
                     163.950 ---159.450    M2076 demo/parking
                     163.9625---159.4624   M2077 CBS
                     163.975 ---159.475    M2078 CBS
 163.9875  STH                  159.4875   STH  RQAS only
 164.000   STH  RQAS only       159.500    STH  RQAS only
 164.0875  STH                  159.5875   STH  RQAS only
 164.125   STH  RQAS only       159.625    STH  RQAS only
 164.1375  PBR                  159.6375   Local Comms returns (to 459MHz)
                                159.65     Local comms ret.
                                159.6625   Local comms ret.
                                159.675    Local comms ret.
 164.1875  STH  RQAS only       159.6875   STH
 164.200   page ret. (as 161)   159.700    Local comms ret.


          Data Services Ltd (ex Vodafone's Paknet) data system - base continuous   (25 channels?!)
                     164.225 ---159.725 
                             to
                     164.4125---159.9125  (old limit 164.3875?)
                     (see 163.775... for same sounding content)   [Hear it here!]


          this top section used to be mainly Private Message Handling - operators speaking
          to mobile doctors etc. (AirCall/MediCall), and is now CBS "predominantly".
                     164.4375---159.9375   M2115
                             to 
                     165.0375---160.5375   M2163 (Last ch.)
 ----------------------------   --------
                                160.550 - 160.575 Alarms (3x 12.5kHz)  
                             ** the end of this 2nd column now joins the start of the 1st. now we've covered 4.6MHz **

          160.3 to 160.55 was once used for 11 private marine channels (1970s)
          (and at the time Private Message Handling thus only went to 164.775/160.275)




-165.04375=-------------------

          High Band
          12.5kHz channels.  Some "TalkThrough".  DCS.  
          Security firms (Datatrack mobile digital - on 5 national Securicor channels)
          Ambulance service (many at 166.1-166.85), Taxis, etc.

          National exclusive: 45 dual, 11 single
          CBS: 20 dual
          On-site shared: 5 dual, 31 single
          Wide Area Shared: 185 dual
          UK General: 5 single

      **  These are your main business radio bands, mate. So I'm told. 
      **  Don't ever listen here. It's not nice to eavesdrop.
      **  The technology might be fascinating, but there's no point listening, is there?

 165.05...PBR, to 168.2375  (split +4.8: 169.850 -173.0375)   (French splits -4.6) (ISM 168 +/- 8kHz)
 168.25...PBR, to 168.3      single
          168.3125=... H.O.
 168.85...PBR, to 169.8375   single - with ERMES paging 169.425 to 169.8 (25kHz channels)
 169.85...PBR, to 173.0375   single OR dual: see 165.05
 173.05...PBR, to 173.0875   single


 ** a 4.8 MHz difference UPWARDS
                     Base       Mobile
 ---------------------------------------
                     165.0500---169.8500   ch H001    Hxxx = (freq - 165.0375) / 0.0125

                     165.075 ---169.875    Road Construction (not London)

                     165.1625---169.9625   ON SITE 32 DUAL
                     165.1875---169.9875   ON SITE 33 DUAL
                     165.2125---170.0125   ON SITE 34 DUAL
                     166.7625---171.5625   ON SITE 35 DUAL
                     167.0375---171.8375   ON SITE 36 DUAL

                     167.2000---172.000    demo/"parking"/Test&Dev

                     168.2375---173.0375   ch H256

 ** single freq.s
 ----------------------------   --------
 168.2500  PBR  H257            173.050    PBR

 168.2875  Alarms               173.0875   PBR         (173.09375= end of high band PBR boundary)
 168.3000  PBR  H261            173.100... H.O. + LPD/SRD
-168.3125=-boundary----------
 168.325   H.O.
    to
 168.825
-168.8375=------------------- this boundary used to be listed as 168.95
 168.8500  PBR  H305

 168.9375  Alarms
 169.0125  STH
 169.0500  JRC  H321
 169.1375  STH
 169.1625  STH
 169.1875  STH

 169.3875  PBR  H348
-169.39375=------------------
 169.4250  ERMES-01 
           ERMES Paging (25kHz, continuous, 6.25kbps, 4level FSK)   [Hear it here!]
           16 channels, with each country having 4 "preferred" channels
              Swiss - 1,4,12,15
              Finland - 11
              France 10,14

              ERMES intruded into the 169 band of single PMR in the 1990s,
              with some confusion about whether 169.400 was to be used or not.
              If 169.825 is OK for PMR, why not allow PMR now on 169.400?
              Is all PBR here being cleared?
    to                  (ex STH channels 169.4875 .5375 .575 .6375 .7625)
 169.8000  ERMES-16
-169.81875=------------------
 169.825   PBR  H383
 169.8375  PBR  H384   
 169.85    H001 mobile "leg"... where we started the second column this time

          Trying to subtract 4.8 in your head? Why not subtract 5 (easy) then add 0.2 (easy too)!
          Subtracting 5 too hard?!! Add 5 if it's easier, then take 10!
 


 173.1... SRD, to 177.2=  Mics, JFMG, Theatres, Telemetry, Alarms, Telecommand, Deaf-aids
          New band for narrowband speech opened in 1997 somewhere in 173.1-174

          173.1875  SRD license-exempt
          173.2=... licensed SRD, to 173.35=   ( and 173.7= to 174= )
                    173.225 fixed or short range alarms only 
          173.35=...Aids for the deaf, to 174.415=
          173.5875  only telemetry and telecommand with speech, & 173.6
          173.7=    medical/biological telemetry, to 174
          173.7=... mics...
          173.965=..Aids for handicapped, to 174.015=



          There is a Euro plan (25-08) to re-organise 157.45-174:  (boundaries - last pair likely: 173.9875-169.3875)
          162.05  ... Base, to 165.2 (split -4.6: 157.45 -160.6)   (... this one could well be the full range though)
          169.825 ... Base, to 174   (split -4.6: 165.225-169.4)
          and some single around 165.2125




-174=--------------------------
          Band III - TV Broadcasting (Not UK since 1984), DAB
          UK: Mobile - PAMR/PBR/JFMG/PMSE (mics) + AMR + Data
              Bus and coach operators, RA's "B9" business class, rail.

            French TV: 8MHz ch. F5-F10  vision at 176, 184, 192, 200, 208, 216   sound at +6.5
            Euro TV (7MHz)  E5 174-181, E6 181-188, ... E11 216-223, E12 223-230
            Old UK  (5MHz)  B6 176-181, B7 181-186, ... B13 211-216

            174.0 ... mics, to 175.1=      174.6, 174.675, 174.77, 174.885, 175.02  5mW 50kHz
                      173.8 yellow   180kHz 2mW
                      174.1 red
                      174.5 blue
                      174.8 green
                      175.0 white
            175.25    mics (200kHz)
            175.525   mics (200kHz)
            176.3=... mics, to 177.1=   at 176.4 176.6 176.8 177.0


 --sub band 1-- 
 176.5=...  (mics)                               (unused PBR channels 001-057 : 176.5 = 001)
 177.2=
 177.2125...PAMR/DATA, to 183.4875  (split +8: 185.2-191.5)  channels 058-560  -  63 not allocated
            (except 181.7-181.8 - JFMG 12.5kHz 25W simplex talkback)
            Some PBR. PAMR is trunked. (control channels continuous)  [Hear it here!]
            Data: Cognito - 49 channels  on 1xx.x00 / 1xx.x25 / 1xx.x50 / 1xx.x75   [Hear it here!]

            183.5=... AMR plan:
                      183.5125.. 25kHz channels (8), to 183.6875 - shared
                      183.7=...  retained, to 183.9=
                      184.0      wideband channel - 200kHz
                      184.1=...  retained, to 184.3=
                      184.3=...  single user, exclusive
            184.5=... JFMG, to 185.1=
                      184.6  news gathering mics, and 184.8 185.0
            185.2=
            185.2125..PBR, see -8  (189.7-189.8 JFMG 12.5kHz 25W simplex talkback)


 --sub band 2--
 191.5=
            191.5=... JFMG
                      191.7  links 200kHz, news mics
                      191.9  links 200kHz, mics
                      192=...mics  200kHz max, to 193.1= 10mW    192.1 192.3 192.6 192.8 193.0
            193.2=
            193.2125..PBR, see +8
            199.5=... JFMG links and mics, SRD
                      199.7  temp links - 200kHz max, stereo  (1 month only, directional, 1W ERP max), mics
                      199.9  mics, and 200.1 200.3
            200.5=... mics, to 201.1=            (unused PBR channels 001-057 : 200.5 = 001)
                      200.6  mics, and 200.8 201.0
 201.2125...PAMR/PBR,  to 207.4875  (split -8: 193.2-199.5)  channels 058-560  - all but 7 allocated
            (95 PMR channels, 401 PAMR)


 --sub band 3--
 207.5=
            The initial plan was for another block of PBR/PAMR with 8MHz split...
            208.5=... PAMR/PBR,  to 215.5=  (split +8: 216.5-223.5)

            ...but sub-bands 1 & 2 contained the demand, then DAB arrived, and so they planned -3.3MHz splits :
            209.206= - 215.26875= PAMR/PBR Frequency plan developed using 6.25 and 12.5kHz channels. No use as yet.
               209.26... PBR, see +3.3
               210.26... SRD
               210.97... PBR, see +3.3
               211.925...JFMG,     to 212.1875 - mobile talkback (to 141 MHz) wide area
               212.2 ... SRD
               212.5625..PAMR/PBR, to 213.55        (split -3.3: 209.26-210.25)
               213.56... ?SRD?
               214.275...PAMR/PBR, to 215.2625      (split -3.3: 210.97-211.96)   Narrowband modes
               215.275...JFMG,     to 215.4875  (not split -3.3: 211.97-212.18!!) temp. links 

            and this finally led to the following +3.35MHz splits :


            207.6=... JFMG mics, to 209.1=   207.7 207.9 208.1 208.3 208.6 208.8 209.0
            209.2=  

 209.2125...PAMR/PBR, to 210.2                          (split +3.35: 212.5625-213.55)   12.5kHz
 210.206=...reserved for future PMR/PAMR, to 210.919=   (split +3.35: 213.556 -214.269)  bandwidth not yet decided
 210.919=...reserved for future PMR/PAMR, to 211.919=   (split +3.35: 214.269 -215.269)  narrowband 5kHz or 6.25kHz

            211.925...JFMG, to 212.1875 - NOW: see 215.275   (WAS: wide area mobile talkback - to 141 MHz)
            212.2 ... SRD, to 212.55
            212.5625..PAMR/PBR,       see -3.35: 209.2125...
            213.556=..future PMR/PAMR see -3.35: 210.206=...
            214.269=..future PMR/PAMR see -3.35: 210.919=... 
 215.275... JFMG SAP base, to 215.4875  (split -3.35: 211.925-212.1875)   (WAS: temp. links)
            215.5=... SRD, to 217.5
                      216.0.. JFMG mics, to 217.1=   216.1 216.3 216.6 216.8 217.0


 217.5=...DAB, to 230 (1.536 MHz bandwidth)  Vertical Pol.  (more, more)
          Eureka 147 - COFDM - Umpteen hundred narrowband carriers all sharing the bits...

 218.640  (E11-B)  LOCAL      n/a
 220.352  (E11-C)  LOCAL/INR  Isle of Man + Channel Islands
 222.064  (E11-D)  LOCAL/INR  England + Wales
 223.936  (E12-A)  LOCAL/INR  Scotland
 225.648  (E12-B)  BBC        UK + Gibraltar  (224.88-226.416)
 227.360  (E12-C)  LOCAL      n/a
 229.072  (E12-D)  LOCAL/INR  Northern Ireland

   A whopping 6 programmes carried on each transmission. That's 12 in any one
   location then. And that's supposed to be more efficient than the current FM
   system? But I can get two or three times that many stations already, check
   the FM band in London or Paris for example. Progress.
     Ah, they'll say, but we can also use BandII when the analogue signals are
   phased out, and there's L-band too (1.5 GHz).
     Yee-ess, I'll say, but try fitting the processing power needed into a walkman,
   and make the batteries last more than half an hour. Ha.
     Oh, silly me, I nearly forgot. We don't really need more than ONE music station
   anyway, as they all play the same 500 tired worn out "hits" over and over again.
   And there's never enough advertising revenue to support TWO stations in the same
   area, is there?
     Am I the only person in the UK who wants to listen to good new music, rather than
   the same old Simply Red/Phil Collins/Toto/60's/kiddie pop/REM/Peter Gabriel etc?
   Most people I mention this to  usually agree (willingly, too) and would rather
   feel more "up to date" than all this living in the past. It is after all a great
   pleasure to hear a fresh bit of pop and find you really like it - that is what
   makes us go out and buy the stuff isn't it? Trouble is, when they do play the
   latest releases, they play them every hour until you're sick of them - if you
   have the radio on all day at work it'll drive you nuts.
     So, from my experience most people are fed up with it, but as there's no
   alternative the audience figures will remain high, that pleases the advertisers,
   nothing needs to change, keep it bland, and the vicious circle continues...
     And the current FM sound quality is nowhere near as good as it could be anyway.
   How DO they manage to make even music I LIKE sound so awful?


 224.0125.. JFMG PMSE, to 224.4875  portable links

 There is an Amateur 1.25m allocation in the USA from 222 to 225
 (was 220-225 until the 1990s) which started (at 224) in 1938.





-230---------------------------
          NATO military band.  (Equipment)   ARFA/DRFB/FMSC/NJFA/CEAC
          Air-Ground-Air, Air-Air comms  (25kHz AM channels)   some 12.5kHz spaced ch.s?
          Radio Relay, PTARMIGAN multi-channel trunk links

          Used by the Red Arrows, Falcons, Sharks etc for airshows

          Thought of (by us old-timers) as 225 to 400 MHz, the lower end has been lost to DAB,
          and from 380 upwards is earmarked for Land Mobile such as TETRA.

          Some satellite (FM, wide bandwidth) downlinks, especially in the 250/260 MHz region. System info.

 243.0    Distress, EPIRBs    121.5 x 2 = 243    to be phased out
 259.7    Space shuttle
 282.8    Emergency / SAR   & 244.6, 285.85

          The Philippines, Singapore and Brunei have a 300 mW 40 ch FRS service that operates
          on the 325 MHz band - I wonder if any handies get brought over here?
          Watch out for unapproved cordless phones at 375-385 (split -126: 249-259) 40 channels nbfm

          326.5=... Astronomy,  to 328.5=  - deuterium spectral line
          328.6=... Aero. Nav., to 335.4=  - ILS, glideslopes

          380=...   TETRA mobile, to 383=  see 390
    
 390=...  PSRCP H.O. TETRA, to 393=   (split -10: 380-383)     may eventually extend to 395= & 385=
          Public Safety Radio Comms Project... i.e. Emergency Services
          390.0125 to 392.9875 (digital 25 kHz channels)  Base continuous.   (Below 391.6 only, so far?)
          391.5125 Test & Dev. ?

          


-399.9=---UHF------------------
          Mobile         (French splits +/-10)

          399.9=.. Satellite, to 400.15=
                   399.9=... Nav, to 400.05=
                   400.1    Standard freq. / time

 400.15=..Met. sondes, Satellite, EPIRBs, to 406.1
          402...   medical implants, to 405
          406.0    Emergency Locator Transmitters
          406.025  EPIRBs

 406.1=.. MoD, to 420
          (replacements for old VHF local net allocations being cleared)
 
          406... Syledis nav. (positioning) system, to 449  - pulses - Annoying clicks on 70cms!

          410=.. mobile civil TETRA, to 415=  see 420
          
          418.0  UK SRDs (centre of 200kHz alloc.)   to be phased out
                "Only SRD equipment certified to the R&TTE Directive before 31.Dec.2002
                 will be accepted for use in the UK until 31.Dec.2007."




    UHF1: 420 to 450 - military (shares with PBR), SRD, SAB
          RadioLocation is primary at 420-430 and 440-450

          There is a Euro plan (25-08) to re-organise 410-430: (boundaries)
          420 ... Base, to 430 (split -10: 410-420)

 420=...  PAMR: national civil TETRA, to 430= (split -10: 410-420)
          420.0125... 400 x 25kHz channels, to 429.9875  - 12.5kHz offsets (as with TACS)    Dolphin

            425-430 use started January 2000, Dolphin had 100 channels within 420-425 prior to that 
            "further allocations may be made... in the bands 415-420 MHz paired with 425-430 MHz" - Dec.1999


          425.00625=
          425.0125... PBR, see 445.5125   +20.5
         (425.3125=...JFMG, to 425.5626=  temp links - South West large towns only)
          425.5125... PBR, see 440.0125   +14.5
         (427.7625=...JFMG, to 428.0125=  talkback   - various areas)
          428.025...  PBR, see 442.525    +14.5
          429=...    MoD


 430=...  Amateur 70cm band, to 440=
          Secondary. Shared with MoD... 
          some Govt (some odd splits to other UHF1 sections)  Nuclear Electric 
 430.025. RU1   French/Neth. repeaters, to 430.375 (RU15) (split +1.6: 431.625-431.975)
 432.0=...Narrow band CW/SSB
 433.0... UK repeaters  (RB0),  to 433.375 (RB15) (split +1.6: 434.6-434.975)
 433.4... FM simplex    (SU16), to 433.575 (SU23)
          433.5 calling (SU20)
 433.6... data/digital and some "emergency priority", to 433.8=
 433.92   center of problematic SRD/ISM band (433.05 - 434.79)  i.e. vehicles immobilised by ham transmissions  *grin*
          May be used for 10mW telemetry from models :
            433.075 - 434.775 (69 x 25kHz channels)  as used in Europe for short-range comms, e.g. Icom IC-4008E
 434.6... Euro. repeaters, to 434.975  (split -1.6: reverse of UK)
          435.070 UO-14 sat. FM repeater mode - uplink: 145.975 (University of Surrey, 1990)
          436.625 StenSat FM transponder - uplink: 145.840  (12 cubic inches, 8.2 ounces) launched 26Jan00
                  DTMF for repeater mode: #6676326
 438.2... Euro. repeaters, to 439.475  (split -7.6: 430.6-431.875) Germany/Swiss/Austria

          So who would use the ham band? Well, they'd have to be not quite REAL military (they've plenty of spectrum)
          ...so how about space cadets... and DERA perhaps (just speculation...).
          In July 1999 use of the following was banned by the RA for a week, via letter, web-site & GB2RS:
            430.650  439.450
            430.700  439.575
            430.750  439.625
            430.825  439.825
            430.875  439.875
            430.975  439.925
            430.400  439.350
            430.525  439.400




          UHF1 PBR limited mainly to large cities - London, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow, Edinb., Leeds,
          Aberdeen, Bradford, Derby, Halifax, Leicester, Middlesbro, NewCastle, Preston, Sheffield, Warrington,
          Coventry, Bristol, Cardiff, Swansea, Newport. 12.5kHz channels.

          Channel xxx = (freq - 440) / 0.0125       freq = (Ch number x 0.0125) + 440

 440.0125.PBR, to 442.2625 (split -14.5: 425.5125-427.7625)     RAM data

          440.325     on-site  7 (:425.825)   ch 26
          440.35      on-site  8 (:425.85)
          440.375     on-site  9 (:425.875)
          440.5375    demo/parking (:426.0375)
          440.9       on-site 16 (:426.4)
          440.925     on-site 17 (:426.425)
          440.95      on-site 18 (:426.45)
          441.1125    on-site 20 (:426.6125)
          442.25      CBS        (:427.75)    ch 180

          442.275 ... JFMG, to 442.5125= talkback - various areas

 442.525..PBR, to 443.4875 (split -14.5: 428.025 -428.9875)   13 JRC ch.
          442.525     on-site 26 (:428.025)   ch 202
          442.5375    CBS        (:428.0375)
          442.55      on-site 27 (:428.05)
          442.575     on-site 28 (:428.075)
          442.6       on-site 29 (:428.1)
          442.625     on-site 30 (:428.125)
          442.65      on-site 31 (:428.15)
          442.775     on-site 39 (:428.275)
          442.875     W.A. shared 43 (:428.375)
          443.45      on-site 51 (:428.95)
          443.475     on-site 53 (:428.975)
          443.4875    CBS        (:428.9875)  ch 279 

          443.5 ...   MoD

 445.5125.PBR, to 445.9875 (split -20.5: 425.0125-425.4875)
          445.5125    CBS            (:425.0125)  ch 441
          445.975     W.A. shared 62 (:425.475)
          445.9875    CBS            (:425.4875)  ch 479

 446.0... PBR, to 446.4  on-site single : channels 1 to 33  (12.5kHz)
 446.006..PMR446 (Euro SRBR), to 446.093 (8x 12.5kHz - within 446-446.1, 6.25kHz offsets)
          Introduced in 1999    500mW licence exempt
          446.00625  1 (446.005 to nearest 5kHz)
          446.01875  2 (446.020)
          446.03125  3 (446.030)
          446.04375  4 (446.045)
          446.05625  5 (446.055)
          446.06875  6 (446.070)
          446.08125  7 (446.080)
          446.09375  8 (446.095)
    

          446.425=... JFMG, to 446.5125= all areas
          446.5125=.. JFMG, to 447.5125= various areas, links, comms, talkback simp. and duplex (base)

 447.525..PBR, to 449.4875
          448=... PBR, to 449=     (split -17: shared with amateur 431-432) London. 6.25kHz offsets
                                   (some -17.5 approx splits from 449.025 to 449.25 to middle of 431-432)
          448.00625 CBS (:431.00625)  ch 640
          448.99375 CBS (:431.99375)  ch 719

          449.10625 Traffic info
          449.2625..PBR single...

 449.5=.. Prefered band for use by visiting foreigners for temporary PMR use, typically SAB, to 450= (12.5kHz channels)
          449.5=... MoD
          449.75=.. Space ops/research, to 450.25=   Earth-to-Space




    UHF2: 450= to 470= - emergency services, PBR, Paging, Telemetry, SRD, SAB
          PBR mobile segments may contain single frequency simplex use. 12.5kHz channels. No CBS.
          data systems (RAM/Hutchinson - 14 channel pairs, 17 in UHF1)  [Hear it here!]

          450-451 used to be used for Links, split +14: 464-465
          other old link pairings in UHF2 used splits of 5.5, 6.5, 12.5 MHz
          457-458.5, 460.5-461.5, 462.5-464, 467-470 were used.
          Links have moved up the spectrum as technology has improved.

          There is a Euro plan (25-08) to re-organise 450-470: (boundaries)
          460 ... Base, to 470 (split -10: 450-460)
          and the RA are trying to find the best way to realign

 450=...  H.O. - Emergency Services, to 453= (with 464-467.25)
            (started as 451-452, then expanded up to 453, then down to 450)
             25kHz channels until 1999, now using some 12.5kHz

 453.00625= boundary for start of UHF2 PBR
 453.0125 PBR - mobile at 461.275
 453.025..PBR, to 453.9875 dual 12.5kHz (split +6.5: 459.525-460.4875)  
          ..and 25kHz single:
                               453.025----459.525  on-site 1 dual
          453.0375    single             (459.5375 = H.O.)
                               453.050----459.550
                               453.0625---459.5625 on-site 2 dual
          453.075     on-site 31          459.575  on-site 1
                               453.0875---459.5875 on-site 3 dual
                               453.100----459.600  on-site 4 dual
                               453.1125---459.6125 on-site 5 dual
          453.125     on-site 32          459.625  on-site 2
                               453.175----459.675  on-site 7 dual
          453.225     on-site 33          459.725  on-site 3
                               453.250----459.750  W.A. shared 4
          453.300     on-site 34          459.800  on-site 4
          453.350     on-site 35          459.850  on-site 5
          453.400     on-site 36          459.900  on-site 6
          453.425     on-site 37          459.925  on-site 7
          453.450     on-site 38          459.95   on-site 8
                               453.500----460.000  on-site 8 dual
          453.525     on-site 39          460.025  on-site 9
          453.550     UK general
                               453.550----460.050  National 4 dual
          453.575     on-site 40          460.075  on-site 10
                               453.600----460.100  on-site 9 dual
          453.625     on-site 41          460.125  on-site 11
          453.650     on-site 42          460.150  on-site 12
          453.675     on-site 43          460.175  on-site 13
          453.700
          453.725     on-site 44          460.225  on-site 14
                               453.750----460.250  on-site 11 dual
          453.875     on-site 45          460.375  on-site 15
          453.900     UK general
                               453.900----460.400  National 5 dual
          453.925
                               453.925----460.425  on-site 14 dual
          453.950     on-site 46          460.450  on-site 16
                               453.975----460.475  W.A. shared 7
                               453.9875---460.4875


          454.025 ... Paging, to 454.825

                      New (3.apr.2000) On-site Religious Observance Radio service   i.e. "Call-to-prayer"
                      454.39375 454.40625 454.79375 454.80625 ( +/- 6.25kHz around 454.4 & 454.8 )
                      10 min.s max. broadcasts - follow-ons must wait four times the length of the
                      preceding message.     3km range, maybe more.

 454.85...PBR, to 454.975  (some Railways split -6.5: 448.34375...  with 6.25kHz offsets)
          454.9875=...JFMG, to 455.475=  short term links and location talkback base (with 468.018-468.506) (+airborne)
 455.475..PBR, to 455.85   (split +5.5 or +5.3: 460.775-461.25)  AIRPORTS ONLY
                       some channels were once split -6.5: 449.0375-449.1875
                       and  455.6875 once paired with +4.0: 459.6875
          455.8625 ? 
          455.875  ?
          455.8875... H.O., to 455.9875

 456.0... PBR, to 456.9875 dual 12.5kHz (split +5.5: 461.500-462.4875)   and single:
                             456.0   ---461.5    National 18 dual
                             456.025 ---461.525  on-site 15 dual
                             456.050 ---461.550  W.A.Shared 8

                             456.0625---461.5625 JRC
                                     to
                             456.3125---461.8125 (21 ch)

                             456.2625---461.7625 National 35 dual
                             456.35  ---461.85   on-site 16 dual
                             456.375 ---461.875  National 38 dual
                             456.3875---461.8875 STH  or either singly
                             456.4   ---461.9    National 39 dual
                             456.4125---461.9125 National 40 dual
                             456.425 ---461.925  National 41 dual
                             456.475 ---461.975  W.A.Shared 9
                                        462.050
          456.575     on-site 47        462.075  on-site 25
                             456.600 ---462.100  on-site 18 dual
                                        462.100  UK general
          456.625     on-site 48        462.125  on-site 26
                             456.650 ---462.150  on-site 19 dual
                             456.675 ---462.175  on-site 20 dual
          456.725     on-site 49        462.225  on-site 27
          456.775     on-site 50        462.275  on-site 28
          456.800     on-site 51        462.300  on-site 29
                             456.825 ---462.325  on-site 23 dual
                             456.875 ---462.375  on-site 24 dual
          456.8625    STH RQAS only     462.3625 STH
                                        462.375
          456.900     on-site 52        462.400  on-site 30
                             456.925 ---462.425  demo/parking   or either singly
                                        462.475  STH
                             456.9875---462.4875 STH  or either singly

          457.0=  ... H.O. (+5.5?), to 457.25=
          457.256 ... JFMG short term location talkback base, to 457.468 (with 467.293-467.531) 6.25 kHz offsets
          457.475=... H.O.
 457.5=.. Scanning Telemetry, to 458.5= (split +5.5: Outstations at 463-464)
          457.50625-458.49375 Scanners, 12.5kHz channels 1 to 80 (i.e. 6.25kHz offsets) - with 463.00625-463.99375
          457.525 ... Marine on-board comms, to 457.575 (may be split +10)
 458.5=.. Telemetry, SRD, to 459.1=
          458.525 ... model control, to 459.475 - channels 1 to 39
 458.85.. On-site paging / local comms, to 459.475 (25kHz)
          459.4875... H.O. (and .5125 .5375)  Air ambulances
          459.525 ... PBR, see 453.025
          460.500=... H.O., to 460.75=  Some prisons. Was used for air traffic control links, to +6.5: 467...
          460.775 ... PBR, see 455.475
          461.2375... JFMG, & 461.25 (split +7.2875: 468.525 & 468.5375)

 461.2625.PBR and SRBR, to 461.4875 (SRBR until 31.Dec.2003)
          461.2625    SRBR
          461.275     mobile - base=453.0125
          461.2875    UK General 1
          461.300     SRBR paging
          461.3125    on-site 17
          461.325     on-site 18
          461.3375    on-site 19
          461.35      on-site 20
          461.3625    on-site 21
          461.375     UK General 2
          461.3875    on-site 22
          461.4       on-site 23
          461.450     UK General 3
          461.4625    on-site 24
          461.475     SRBR
          461.4875    SRBR
 
          461.500 ... PBR, see 456
 462.49375= boundary for end of UHF2 PBR

          462.500=... H.O., to 462.75=
                      (US GMRS/FRS handies)
                       GMRS ch 1 to 8  at 462.55   to 462.725  (25kHz steps)  with mobile at +5MHz
                       FRS  ch 1 to 7  at 462.5625 to 462.7125 (25kHz steps)  also used for GMRS single
                          & ch 8 to 14 at 467.5625 to 467.7125 (5MHz above ch 1 to 7)
          462.756 ... JFMG fixed sites talkback (split +6.7375/+6.875: 469.493-469.868) 6.25kHz offsets
          463.000=... ST, see 457.5=
          464.000=... H.O., to 467.25=    see 450=    (466.075 Paging)

 467.2625=..JFMG... links and talkback (+airborne)
          467.275 ... see 457.25
          467.525 ..  Marine on-board, to 467.575  single, or dual: see -10  (future use of the 2 12.5kHz channels)
                      467.55... US GMRS/FRS, to 467.725 - see 462.55
          468.0125    single.
          468.018 ... JFMG, to 468.5375, see 455 and 461.237
          469.493 ... fixed sites, see 462.756

 469.875=..H.O.




-470=--------------------------
          Band IV - TV Broadcasting in 8MHz channels (21 to 35)  + land mobile (secondary - JFMG)

          UK System I (PAL) : Offsets of +/- 25 kHz may be used to alleviate co-channel interference
          AM  Vision carrier  at +1.25 (Lower Sideband vestigial)
          FMW Sound  carrier  at +7.25 (sound 6 higher than video)
          Nicam digital sound at +7.802

          French System L (Secam) : Offsets of +/- 37.5 kHz may be used.
          AM  Vision carrier  at +1.25 (inverted video)
          AM  Sound  carrier  at +7.75 (sound 6.5 higher than video)
          Nicam digital sound at +7.55

          Teletext and PDC.

          DTTV - Digital Terrestial, COFDM - 2k (1705 carriers) or 8k (6817)


          JFMG - ch 21 to 34 - mics and talkback (split +80MHz)
 


 bound.s--ch--sound-
 470-478  21  477.25    (or perhaps 477.225 or 477.275 if an offset used)
 478-486  22  485.25     Offsets are usually 5/3 of the line freq (26kHz for 15.625kHz) but let's not be fussy!
 486-494  23  493.25
 494-502  24  501.25     some lists show 500.0 MHz as a mil distress channel. Hmmmm ??!!!
 502-510  25  509.25
 510-518  26  517.25
 518-526  27  525.25
 526-534  28  533.25
 534-542  29  541.25
 542-550  30  549.25
 550-558  31  557.25
 558-566  32  565.25
 566-574  33  573.25
 574-582  34  581.25
 582-590  35  589.25   + JFMG links and mics    (radar on 586 until 1995)



-590=--------------------------
          UK Aero. Navigation + JFMG mics

 590-598 (36) VCRs / Computers etc
   594        Radar 50cm


-598=--------------------------
          Band V - TV Broadcasting in 8MHz channels (37 to 68)  + land mobile (secondary - JFMG mics)

 598-606  37  605.25   + JFMG links  (was once used for radar on 602, until 1995)
 606-614  38  613.25
   610        Radio Astronomy
 614-622  39  621.25   + JFMG talkback (split -80MHz), to 662
 622-630  40  629.25
 630-638  41  637.25
 638-646  42  645.25
 646-654  43  653.25
 654-662  44  661.25
 662-670  45  669.25
 670-678  46  677.25
 678-686  47  685.25
 686-694  48  693.25
 694-702  49  701.25  (695-720 talkback)
 702-710  50  709.25
 710-718  51  717.25
 718-726  52  725.25
 726-734  53  733.25
 734-742  54  741.25
 742-750  55  749.25
 750-758  56  757.25
 758-766  57  765.25
 766-774  58  773.25
 774-782  59  781.25
 782-790  60  789.25

-790=--------------------------
          TV, Land Mobile (secondary - JFMG mics)    Military Radio Relay
       
 790-798  61  797.25
 798-806  62  805.25
 806-814  63  813.25
 814-822  64  821.25
 822-830  65  829.25
 830-838  66  837.25
 838-846  67  845.25
 846-854  68  853.25
 854-862      (often refered to as channel 69, a proposed extension) - JFMG SAB




-854=--------------------------
          Mobile, military, Cellphones (dangerous?)

 854...   JFMG ch69 - SAB, mics, SRD, CT2 cordless phones, to 870
                    Shared mic channels, available accross UK, to 855.4=

          854.0=... "allocated to a government department", to 854.25=
          854.25=.. JFMG up to 1W - mics / talkback / links, to 862
                      higher powered links at 856.8 and 860.6 - 200kHz b.width, or subdivided to 50kHz channels
                      mics only at 854.9 855.275 855.9 856.175 856.575 857.625 857.95
                                   858.2 858.65  860.4 860.9   861.2   861.55  861.75 (all 200kHz b.width)
                      mic channels may be used for talkback subject to appropriate power restictions

                      858.750 - 859.750 only available to radiomics, indoors - because:
          856=...   MoD,  to 859.75 Tactical training

          860.1=... Shared mic channels, available accross UK, to 862=

          862=...   Govt, to 863=

          863=...   SRD,  to 865=   Cordless headphones, consumer mics, etc

          864.1 ..  CT2,  to 868.1  to be phased out. No new equipment after April 2005

          866...    proposed for Asset Tracking, to 868
          867.6 ..  proposed ETSI paging narrow band returns, to 868.0
          868...    SRD,  to 870     alarms
                    868=...   25mW ...
                    868.6 ..  Alarms - 10mW ...
                    868.7 ..  25mW ...
                    869.2 ..  Euro Social Alarms ...
                    869.25..  Alarms - 10mW ...
                    869.3...  (SRD) ...
                    869.4...  500mW ...
                    869.65..  Alarms - 25mW ...
                    869.7...  5mW

 870=...  Mobile...
                       870 - 871   possible future Euro-band for ERMES returns
                       870 - 876   reserved for future TETRA
          872 (917)
          876 (921)    876.0125... proposed Euro-UIC direct-mode single freq duplex, to 876.0625 (5 x 12.5kHz) 1W
          880 (925)    888...  SRD, to 889  to be phased out by 2003
          890 (935)    898.. ISM +/- 8 MHz
          915 (960)


 915=...  Base section, to 960= (split -45: 870-915)  Cellphones - GSM Global System for Mobility

 917=...  ETACS/TACS, to 950=     to be phased out by 2005
          917.0125 to 949.9875 (25 kHz duplex channels, 12.5kHz offsets) 
          (Control channels at 935.56-936.06 & 943.06-943.56)   [Hear it here!]
          917 - 925 Vodafone
          925 - 933 Cellnet
 915=...  reserved for future TETRA, to 921 (-45: 870-876)
          919.5=.. future Amateur, to 920=   recommended by DSI2 for 2008
 921=...  UIC, to 925= (by 2005) Euro. Railways GSM system
 925=...  EGSM - Extended GSM, 925.2 to 935
 935=...  GSM, to 960=  (-45: 890-915)
          935.2 to 959.8 (124x TDMA 200kHz channels) Digital duplex. Scrambled. Base continuous.    [Hear it here!]
          933   - 939.6 Vodafone
          939.8 - 947   Cellnet
          947   - 955   Vodafone
          955   - 960   Cellnet

 NOTES
 933=...  DSRR, to 935= (Digital Short Range Radio), will NOT happen, Euro plans withdrawn
 934.0125.ex UK CB, to 934.9625 (934/81) (20 channels, 50kHz spacing)  2.Nov.1981 to 31.12.1998

 There is an Amateur 33cm allocation in the USA from 902 to 928 MHz




-960=--------------------------
          Aero. Navigation (DME/IFF), military  JTIDS

 966      Astronomy +/-4 MHz
 
 978....  DME Ground reply X channels, to 1087  (paired with 1xx.x0 MHz) (to +63)
 1025...  DME Air mobile channels, to 1150      (1-126 x 1 MHz channels; 1-16 and 60-69 not used)
          Selected in aircraft by tuning to a paired channel between 108 and 118 MHz
          Pulses transmitted by the aircraft,    returned by the ground station & time difference measured.
 1104...  DME Ground reply Y channels, to 1213  (paired with 1xx.x5 MHz) (to -63)

          TACAN is like DME for slant distance measurement 
          but the return pulses give bearing info instead of using any VHF signal
          
 1030     SSR/IFF (Squalk) Ground (secondary radar - rotating), air reply on 1090
          use AM to detect (pulses stand out more over silence than over noise)   [Hear it here!]

          1164 - 1188 proposed for GPS L5 and Galileo


-1,215=---microwaves---(1.215 GHz)--------
          Mobile, military, radar, navigation, fixed etc...
 
          Rather specialist, wavelengths of less than 30cm really do allow
          for high gain antennas, with very narrow beamwidths. Cable losses 
          become very noticeable and/or untenable. Mobile "flutter" quite
          severe, mobile systems need many more base stations to cover a given
          area. Most useful uses are direct fixed links, point to point, satellite
          (line of sight), low range etc.
          So - mostly un-interceptable and/or digital.

 1215...  Civil airport radar, to 1350  & radiolocation, satellite

 1246...  Russian GLONASS GPS  L2,  0-12: 1246+n(0.4375)  see 1602


 1240=... Amateur 23cm band, to 1325=   CW,SSB/FM/TV   secondary
 1296=... narrowband modes, beacons, to 1297
 1297...  FM repeaters RM0 to RM19 (split -6: 1291..)
 1297.0   RM0
 1297.05  RM2
 1297.075 RM3
 1297.125 RM5
 1297.15  RM6
 1297.225 RM9
 1297.3   RM12
 1297.325 RM13
 1297.375 RM15
 1297.475 RM19 (not in use)
 1297.5.. FM simplex, to 1298
 1297.50  FM calling
 1298.275.German repeaters, to 1298.65 (split -28: 1270..)
 1308...  TV repeater outputs, to 1318.5 (inputs 1248 or 1249;  or 1311.5---1276.5 pair)




-1,350=--------------------------

 1,350=...Civil fixed links   (split +142: 1492-1517) new.  JRC links
          1370..Radioastronomy, to 1400
 1,375=...Govt  links         (split  +52: 1427-1452)
          1394  Civil video links - MPT 1349 standard  (band 1389-1399)
 1,400=...Transmission Prohibited
          Astronomy, Space Research, SETI, Hydrogen Line. Certain frequencies around here
          propagate very well through the universe, so the boffins listen here for extra-
          terrestial transmissions. But surely the little grey men are doing the same thing?
          1420 SETI@Home (+/-1.25MHz)
 1,427=...Govt  links         (split -52: 1375-1400)
          1450... Civil links,    to 1467.5  (split +62.5: 1512.5-1530.0) x
 1,452=...L-Band DAB  & links
          1467.5..Civil links,    to 1472.5  (split +40.0: 1507.5-1512.5) x
          1488.25..JFMG links, to 1490.75
 1,492=...Civil fixed links   (split -142: 1350-1375)
          1507.5..Civil links,    to 1512.5  (split -40.0: 1467.5-1472.5) x
          1512.5..Civil links,    to 1530    (split -62.5: 1450.0-1467.5) x
 1,517=...Civil links, one-way
 1,525=...Satellite comms downlinks -   Inmarsat GMDSS etc (uplinks 1626.5-1660.5) (+101.5)
 1,559=...Radionavigation, to 1626.5=
          1,575.42 Navstar GPS Nav L1 C/A (military accuracy with 1227.6 L2 +/-14MHz)  spread
                   The L1 carrier is modulated by all three GPS data streams, C/A, P and Nav/System Data.
                   The L2 carrier is modulated by two GPS data streams, P-code and Nav/System Data.
                   The L3 carrier 1381.05 MHz is a non-navigation signal associated with nuclear burst detection.
                   One frequency explored for the L4 carrier is 1841.4 MHz.
          1,602... Russian GLONASS L1,  0-12: 1602+n(0.5625)   spread spectrum
 1,610=...Mobile-satellite systems, uplinks (down at -101.5)
          1,610=...LEO MSS, to 1626.5= (up&down) CDMA  i.e. Globalstar, Iridium (TDMA, 780km up)
          1,645.5..Distress EPIRBs, to 1646.5 (Inmarsat E)  1645.6-1645.8?
 1,660.5=.Radioastronomy, to 1670
 1,668=...H.O. links                   (with 1698-1700)
 1,670=...TFTS ground stations

 1,675=...Meteo satellite, to 1710
          1,677=...H.O. mobile applications, to 1685
          1,690=...Weather Satellite HRPT (Hi-res pics), to 1710=  NOAA, GOES, MeteoSat
          1,698=...H.O. links, to 1700 (with 1668-1670)

 1,710=...links, radioastronomy, PCN mobile phones, to 1880

 1785.7...Pro. radio mics, to 1799.3

 1,800.30.TFTS in-flight digital phones (air-ground), to 1804.969 (164 x 30.303 kHz channels : ground at -130)

 1,805=...PCN mobile phone system, to 1876.5= (split -95: 1710-1781.5)
          1805   - 1816.5  soon to be shared by Cellnet & Vodaphone
          1816.5 - 1846.5  One 2 One
          1846.5 - 1876.5  Orange

 1,880=...DECT Digital Euro. Cordless Telephones, to 1900=
          1881.792..ch1, to 1897.344 ch10 (steps of 1.728 MHz)   encrypted,   base continuous (pulses)
          Single Freq. Duplex (Digital TDMA) - supporting 12 conversations at once per channel

 1,900=...future UMTS, to 2025= (with 2110-2200)  IMT-2000, FPLMTS 3rd generation mobile (-190?)  issues
          licences will comprise three of (2x10)+5MHz, one of 2x15MHz and one of (2x15)+5 MHz. 

 2,300... Airborne Telemetry, to 2330 (extension to 2400)
 2,310=...Ham 13cm band, to  2,450=
 2.4  ... JFMG video links & cameras, to 2.68
 2,402... Bluetooth digital SRD, to 2.480 (79 x 1MHz channels) 1600 hops per sec over 32 channels
 2,450    ISM, your microwave oven. Really.
 2,700=...Radar, to 3100  - 10cm band
 3.100=...Mil radio location, to 3410
 3,400=...Ham  9cm band, to  3,475=
 3,442=...Police helicopter video downlinks, to 3475
 3,475.6=.FWA/RFA/RLL, to 3,492.688  (split -50: 3425-3442)   used by Ionica 1993-??(97?)
 3,500=...PMSE, to 3600 - 5 video channels
 3,675=...C-Band satellite TV, to 4,200=
 5,150=...RLAN Short Range  High Data Rate  Nomadic Equipment, to 5,875=
 5,350=...radar...
 5,650=...Ham  6cm band, to  5,850=
 9,000    Radar, to 9500  - 3cm band

10,000=...Ham  3cm band, to 10,150= - and 10,300= to 10,500=
10,065    TV repeater o/p




-10,700=--(10.7 GHz)-----------
          Satellite TV, Ku band - Astra,Eutelsat,Intelsat etc. (35,800km up)

 10,700=..FSS (fixed sat. service)
 11,700=..BSS (DBS - Band VI)
 12,500=..Telecom


-12,750=-----------------------
          These are really small radio wavelengths...

 24,000=..Ham  12mm band, to  24,250=
 40,500=..future ITC 7mm MVDS Multipoint Video Distribution, to 42.5= GHz
 47,000=..Ham   6mm band, to  47,200=
 75,500=..Ham   4mm band, to  76,000=
 142,000=.Ham   2mm band, to 144,000=
 248,000=.Ham 1.2mm band, to 250,000=  - 248 GHz, hmmmm.

          Radio or Far Infra-Red? There's a bit of overlap near 1mm wavelengths...


-275,000=-----(275 GHz)--------
          Far Infra-Red, to 25,000 GHz  (over 1mm to 12m)


-25,000,000=--(25 THz)---------
          Infra-red


-441 THz=----------------------
          Visible wavelengths. Otherwise known as "Light". Red to Violet (680-420nm)
          Some of my favourite frequencies. Green is rather nice.
  

-714 THz=----------------------  
          Near Ultraviolet. 300nm-180nm


-1,666 THz=--------------------
          Far Ultraviolet 180nm-91nm


-3,289 THz=--------------------
          Extreme Ultraviolet 91nm-10nm
          912-100 Angstroms


-30,000,000,000=--(30 PHz)-----
          X-rays 10nm-10pm
          100-0.1 Angstroms 


-30,000,000,000,000=-(30 EHz)--
          Gamma rays 10pm-100fm and beyond

That's enough. Obsessive? Me? Hehe.. wonder what a "profiler" would say about all this!



Frequency multiplied by wavelength gives 300,000,000 m/s - the speed of light... or 299,792,458 to be more exact. 300 mHz > 3000 mHz 1Gm > 100Mm easier to count s/cycle than c/s ! 3 Hz > 30 Hz 100Mm > 10Mm VERY long waves! Natural 'Earth' waves 30 Hz > 300 Hz ELF 10Mm > 1Mm Bass! 300 Hz > 3000 Hz ILF 1000km > 100km Voice frequencies (sound) 3 kHz > 30 kHz VLF 100km > 10km 30 kHz > 300 kHz LF 10km > 1km 300 kHz > 3000 kHz MF 1km > 100m 3 MHz > 30 MHz HF 100m > 10m 30 MHz > 300 MHz VHF 10m > 1m 300 MHz > 3000 MHz UHF 1m > 10cm 3 GHz > 30 GHz SHF 10cm > 1cm 30 GHz > 300 GHz EHF 1cm > 1mm mainly experimental 300 GHz > 30 THz THF 1mm > 10um limits of radio / far infra-red 30 THz > 300 THz 10um > 1um infra-red light 300 THz > 3000 THz 1um > 100nm infra red > visible > ultra violet (near & far) 3 PHz > 30 PHz 100nm > 10nm extreme ultra violet 30 PHz > 30 EHz 10nm > 10pm x-rays 30 EHz > 10pm > Gamma rays 1 micron = 1 micrometer = 1um = 1000nm = one thousandth of a mm 10 Angstrom = 1 nanometer i.e. 5000A=500nm 1A=0.1nm=100pm X unit (Xu) = approx. 0.001002 angstrom, or 100.2 femtometers, defined by M. Siegbahn in 1925. Formerly used for measuring the wavelength of X rays and gamma rays now measured in picometers (pm) or femtometers (fm). 1 Fermi = 1fm = about the size of an atom's nucleus

Metric prefixes

Ten to the power of -27 vimto v -24 yocto y -21 zepto z -18 atto a Greek: atten = eighteen -15 femto f Greek: fempten = fifteen -12 (trillionth) pico p 'little bit' -9 (billionth) nano n nanos = dwarf -6 (millionth) micro u mikros = small -3 (thousandth) milli m mille = thousand -2 (hundredth) centi c centum = hundred -1 (tenth) deci d decimus = tenth 1 (ten) deca da deka = ten 2 (hundred) hecto h hekaton = hundred 3 (thousand) kilo k Greek: Khilioi 6 (million) mega M megas = great 9 (billion) giga G gigas = giant 12 (trillion) tera T teras = monster 15 (quadrillion) peta P 18 (quintillion) exa E 21 (sextillion) zetta Z 24 (septillion) yotta Y 27 (octillion) 30 (nonillion) 33 (decillion 36 (undecillion) 39 (dodecillion) These American terms obviously increment by one per 42 (tredecillion) thousand. In Europe however, we prefer to do it by 45 (quattuordecillion) millions. Thus a Euro billion is a million millions 48 (quindecillion) and not a thousand millions. 51 (sexdecillion) 99 (dotrigintillion) 100 (googol) 120 (novemtrigintillion) 303 (centillion) googol (googolplex)

Gloss.

ACARS Air Comms Addressing/Reporting System AM Amplitude Modulation (power output varies with modulation, can cause interference) AMR Automatic Meter Reading CB Citizens Band (or Complete B*llocks) CBS Common Base Station - PBR via a dealer who supplies equipment and airtime A.K.A. Community Repeaters. Each set of users have their own CTCSS tone so they don't hear any other groups CDMA Code-Division Multiple Access ("random" hopping/spread spectrum) two users in the same band won't be on the same channel at the same time ..or at least not for long COFDM Coded Orthogonal Freq. Division Multiplex (cough dee-em; NOT Cod FM!) CSR Coastal Station Radio (international channels or private) CTCSS Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System CW Continuous Wave (for Morse) - as opposed to spark transmissions DAB Digital Audio Broadcasting DGPS Differential GPS (sends details of the current GPS error) DME Distance Measuring Equipment DSI Detailed Spectrum Investigation (survey) EPIRB Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon ERP Effective Radiated Power (takes antenna system gain/loss into account) GLONASS GLObal NAvigation Satellite System GPS Global Positioning System H.O. Home Office (govt dept) Hz Hertz - one cycle per second. MHz is millions per second. ERMES European Radio MESsaging - paging standard ETACS Extended TACS FDMA Freq. Div. Multiple Access (sharing a system using different freq.s - i.e. trunking) FM Frequency Modulation (freq varies with modulation, fixed power causes less problems) FSK Freq. Shift Keying ILR Independent Local Radio INR Independent National Radio ISM Industrial/Scientific/Medical JFMG Joint Frequency Management Group (SAB) JRC Joint Radio Co. LEO Low Earth Orbit LPD Low Power Devices MBR Maritime Business Radio MSS Mobile Satellite Service PAMR Public Access Mobile Radio (like CBS, but trunked, over wider areas. Some telephone access too) PBR Private Business Radio (the RA's new preferred term) PMR Private Mobile Radio (what everyone else calls it) PMSE Program Making & Special Events POCSAG A paging standard RDS Radio Data System (57kHz sub-carrier on the audio modulation) RMR Remote... see AMR RQAS Radio Quality Assurance Scheme (ISO 9000) RSL Restricted Service Licence (short term broadcast) SAB Services Ancillary to Broadcasting SAP ..to Program making SAR Search and Rescue SETI Search for Extra-Terrestial Ignorance SOLAS Safety Of Life At Sea (meetings) SSB Single Side-Band ("half" of AM, with the carrier suppressed) USB Upper or LSB Lower SRBR Short Range Business Radio SRD Short Range Devices STH Short Term Hire TACS Total Access Comms System TDMA Time Division Multiple Access (in-turn sharing of a freq.) TETRA TErestial Trunked RAdio (or "how the police will avoid your monitoring")


International Allocation Tables






"nicely annotated..." ... "You did a grand job enhancing the info available" ...
... "one of my favourite pages" - A.T., Surrey.
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"absolutely amazing" ... "more accurate than most..." ... "superb" - C.G., London.
"wonderful" - "...really is the Dog's B******s." ...
... "I just can't imagine how many hours it all took to compile, but its a real masterpiece!"
"I just love charts like this. I highly recommend everyone to visit this site, and to appreciate just how much work and compilation has gone into making it. Go on, get lost in it FOR HOURS. Thanks for sharing." - Nigel, East Anglia.
"...listing is very useful" "Keep up the good work!" - T, Warrington.
"Excellent work! Should be made compulsory reading for every first-time scanner buyer" - Ken, the 'net
"I was looking for frequencies for Marine Band VHF. Perfect. Many thanks" - Ian, UK
"I love this file" ... "how wonderful" - Meg Hertz, somewhere
"Excellent. The only area you are missing is sqr(-1) Hz." - "DeltaDelta", guestbook
"exceptionally interesting and worth a look, you'll spend hours looking at it" - iflya
"it's the best on the net." - S.P., JRC
"a very good site" - Paul Wey, PROMA
"What a brilliant web site, I could spend hours there. Thanx." - Mike J
"Excellent... well worth a look" - Kevin Nice, Short Wave Magazine

Thankfully copied at :
here, ta. [spot on!]
Iflya [no background]
ta Andy [no background]
Thor's old one [no background] (Gone?)
in Wales : NWRRC [Colours! wrong background]
96.7fm somewhere [format wrong]
...another... [format wrong, no background] (Gone?)
Cheers Bigears ! [may98!]

** Hall Of Shame **
Oh dear! Someone at RayCom thinks it's fine to
blatently rip off the format of this document,
leave out bits, and claim it's his own work!
Ha ha... look at the formatting, it's all over the place...
nothing lines up, and it's so stuffed full of HTML tags that
the filesize is enormous... slow... Sad.